Exam 2 Flashcards


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1

Virus capsids are made from subunits called

capsomeres

2

Helical & icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus

capsid

3

A _ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus

capsid

4

One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evenly spaced corners referred to as a(n) _ capsid

Icosahedral

5

Which of the following is not associated with every virus?

envelope

6

Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during

release

7

In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _

nucleus, cytoplasm

8

Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are

Oncoviruses

9

When a bacterium acquires a trait from its temperate phage, it is called

lysogenic conversion

10

Infectious naked strands of RNA that affect plants are called

viroids

11

Infectious protein particles are called

prions

12

Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism

macronutrient

13

Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance

trace element

14

An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an

growth factor

15

Calcium is required for bacteria because

it stabilizes the cell wall

16

An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an

photoautotroph

17

Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called

saprobes

18

Aerobic respiration is an example of

photosynthesis

19

Organisms called _ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm

pathogens

20

The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called

diffusion

21

Diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane is called

osmosis

22

The movement of substance from lower to higher concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called

active transport

23

The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called

facilitated diffusion

24

The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called

endocytosis

25

Nutrient absorption is mediated by the

cell membrane

26

When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed

phagocytosis

27

In _ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting

hypotonic

28

An organism with a temperature growth range of 45°C to 60°C would be called a/an

thermophile

29

Human pathogens fall into the group

mesophiles

30

When microbes in close nutritional relationship and one benefits but the other is not harmed, it is called

commensalism

31

The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of

catabolism

32

The cell's metabolic reactions involve the participation of _ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction

enzymes

33

A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called

cofactors

34

Important components of coenzymes are

vitamins

35

Enzymes that are only produced when substrate is present are termed

induced enzymes

36

All of the following are exoenzymes except

ATP synthase

37

Enzymes that are secreted by a cell to hydrolyze reactions are

exoenzymes

38

Enzymes that function inside a cell are

endoenzymes

39

Enzymes that are always present, regardless of the amount of substrate are

constitutive enzymes

40

Metabolic pathways that regenerate their starting point are called _ pathways.

cyclic

41

When the product of reaction A becomes the reactant of reaction B, the metabolic pathway is

linear

42

Most electron carriers are

coenzymes

43

The step involving ATP, hexokinase and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is

an example of substrate-level phosphorylation

44

Which of the following is not a process that regenerates ATP

reductive phosphorylation

45

Gylcolysis

uses 2 ATP, produces ATP, without oxygen

46

The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins

the Krebs cycle

47

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in

glycolysis and krebs cycle

48

The majority of reduced NAD is produced in

Krebs cycle

49

In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the

cell membrane

50

Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _ ATP

3

51

Each FADH2 from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _ATP's

2

52

In which pathway is the most NADH generated

Krebs cycle

53

During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed

electron transport

54

In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP generated

38

55

When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated

2

56

The principle sites of amphibolic interaction occur during

glycolysis and krebs cycle

57

The _ is all of the genetic material of a cell

genome

58

The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called

nucleotides

59

The duplication of a cell's DNA is called

replication

60

Okazaki fragments are attached to the growing end of the lagging strand by

DNA ligases

61

The enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them and correctly replace them are

DNA polymerases

62

The enzyme that help pack DNA into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle are

DNA helicases

63

DNA Polymerase I

removes primers

64

A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a/an

mutation

65

Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one

amino acid

66

The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein systhesis are called

transfer RNA

67

This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand

messenger RNA

68

Which of the following is not a type of microRNA

tRNA

69

All of the following pertain to RNA virus replication except

negative-sense viruses directly undergo translation

70

The most serious type of mutation is a

frame shift mutation

71

What type of mutation alters the base, but not the amino acid being coded for

silent

72

Which of the following is not a type of bacterial DNA recombination

mitosis

73

Which of the following is not true of transposons

are always part of plasmids