Lifespan chapter 3

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Physical development and biological aging
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1

Early-maturing boys perceive themselves more positively than late-maturing boys.

Berkeley Longitudinal Study

2

While adolescents have strong emotions, their prefrontal cortex is not developed enough to control them.

Charles Nelson

3

Conducts research on developmental changes in the brain during adolescence.

Judith Blakemore

4

Preference for immediate rewards increases in adolescents from 14 to 16 years and decreases thereafter.

Laurence Steinberg

5

As we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing.

Leonard Hayflick

6

Positive emotions early in adulthood are linked to longevity.

Mankato nuns

7

The prefrontal cortex directs the functions of other brain regions during development.

Mark Johnson

8

When the left hemisphere of his brain was removed, his right hemisphere began to take over the normal functions of the left hemisphere.

Michael Rehbein

9

According to Hayflick's cellular clock theory, cells can divide normally:

a maximum of 75 to 80 times.

10

All of the following are recommendations to help older adults sleep better at night, EXCEPT:

taking short naps during the day.

11

Children reach nearly one-half of their adult height by age:

two.

12

Considering the normal aging process, who would be expected to have the highest blood pressure?

A postmenopausal woman

13

Defects in mitochondria are linked with all of the following, EXCEPT:

decreased immune system functioning.

14

During the preschool years:

the percentage of increase in children's height and weight decreases each year.

15

In adolescence, the gap between the increase in risk-taking behavior and the delay in self-regulation is linked to the timing of development in the:

limbic system and frontal lobes.

16

Myelination:

encases axons with a myelin sheath.

17

Nathan has just turned 2 years old. Developmental psychologists believe Nathan's brain is _____ percent of its adult weight.

75

18

Proximodistal growth refers to growth that moves from:

middle to outer.

19

Puberty:

occurs primarily in early adolescence.

20

Recent research has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to:

be depressed.

21

Sleep researchers have found that:

infants engage in more REM sleep than adults.

22

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is less likely when infants sleep:

with a fan on.

23

Telomeres:

are DNA sequences.

24

Testosterone is present in:

boys in a much higher measure than in girls.

25

The _____ is the master gland that produces hormones that stimulate other glands.

pituitary gland

26

The average life expectancy of individuals born today in the United States is _____ years for women and _____ for men.

80.4; 75.4

27

The average North American newborn is _____ inches long and weighs _____ pounds.

20; 7½

28

The Berkeley Longitudinal Study showed that, compared with late-maturing boys, early-maturing boys saw themselves:

more positively.

29

The brain is divided into two halves called:

hemispheres.

30

The brain structure that monitors eating, drinking, and sex is the:

hypothalamus.

31

The last male pubertal characteristic to develop is:

growth of facial hair.

32

The outer layer of the forebrain, which accounts for 80 percent of the brain's volume, is called the:

cerebral cortex.

33

The pineal gland produces _____ in preparation for the body to sleep.

melatonin

34

The term sarcopenia refers to age-related:

loss of muscle mass and strength.

35

The testes in males and the ovaries in females are referred to as the:

gonads.

36

Tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for function, growth, and repair are called:

mitochondria.

37

Two important factors that can produce individual differences in height are:

ethnic origin and nutrition.

38

Typically, which part of a neuron receives information from other neurons?

Dendrites

39

Which lobe of the brain plays an important role in motor control?

Parietal

40

Which of the following best demonstrates the basic principle of cephalocaudal development?

An infant first raises his or her head, then sits up, then stands up.

41

Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their cells' normal metabolism produce unstable oxygen molecules?

Free-radical theory

42

Which of the following can be expected to occur in early adulthood?

Sagging chins and protruding abdomens

43

Which of the following statements about centenarians is NOT true?

Japan has the most centenarians.

44

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

Children mature up to 2 years earlier in the U.S. than in England.

45

Which of the following statements is true?

At the beginning of adolescence, girls tend to be as tall as or taller than boys their age.

46

Which of the following statements regarding sleep during childhood is NOT true?

Children who do not get enough sleep are more likely to have mothers with health problems.

47

Which statement summarizes normal brain development during the seventh decade of life?

Dendritic growth might compensate for the possible loss of neurons.

48

Which was NOT a finding of the research involving the Sisters of Notre Dame in Mankato?

Idea density was negatively correlated with brain weight.

49

Adults need six hours of sleep to be able to function optimally.

FALSE

50

Boys become more satisfied with their bodies as they move through puberty while girls tend to become more dissatisfied with their bodies.

TRUE

51

Climacteric is the term used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines.

TRUE

52

Dendritic growth can occur in human adults.

TRUE

53

During early childhood, boys have more fatty tissue than girls.

TRUE

54

In boys, increased height is associated with an increase in testosterone.

TRUE

55

In the first several days of life, most newborns lose 5-7 percent of their body weight.

TRUE

56

Neurogenesis in the occipital lobe of a human being is possible.

FALSE

57

Recent research suggests that the brains of aging adults may decrease in lateralization, while the brains of children increase in lateralization.

TRUE

58

Research involving the Sisters of Notre Dame in Mankato has revealed that idea density in early adulthood is negatively correlated with cognitive impairment in later adulthood.

TRUE

59

SIDS is more common in Eskimos than Caucasian infants.

TRUE

60

Testosterone is the main class of female hormones.

FALSE

61

The age range of menarche is between 9 and 15 years.

TRUE

62

amygdala

A part of the brain's limbic system that is the seat of emotions such as anger.

63

cellular clock theory

Leonard Hayflick's theory that the number of times human cells can divide is about 75 to 80. As we age, our cells are less able to divide.

64

cephalocaudal pattern

The sequence in which the fastest growth occurs at the top of the body—the head—with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom.

65

climacteric

The midlife transition during which fertility declines.

66

corpus callosum

A large bundle of axon fibers that connects the brain's left and right hemispheres.

67

estradiol

A hormone associated in girls with breast, uterine, and skeletal development.

68

free-radical theory

A microbiological theory of aging stating that people age because when their cells metabolize energy, they generate waste that includes unstable oxygen molecules, known as free radicals, that damage DNA and other structures.

69

gonadotropins

Hormones that stimulate the testes or ovaries.

70

gonads

The sex glands, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in females.

71

hormonal stress theory

The theory that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease.

72

hormones

Powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream.

73

hypothalamus

A structure in the brain that is involved with eating and sexual behavior.

74

lateralization

Specialization of function in one hemisphere or the other of the cerebral cortex.

75

life span

The upper boundary of life, which is the maximum number of years an individual can live. The maximum life span of humans is about 120 years of age.

76

menarche

A girl's first menstrual period.

77

menopause

The time in middle age, usually in the late forties or early fifties, when a woman's menstrual periods cease.

78

mitochondrial theory

The theory that aging is caused by the decay of the mitochondria, which are tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for cell function, growth, and repair.

79

myelination

The process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath, which helps increase the speed and efficiency of information processing.

80

pituitary gland

An important endocrine gland that controls growth and regulates the activity of other glands.

81

prefrontal cortex

The highest level of the frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control.

82

proximodistal pattern

The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.

83

puberty

A period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes during early adolescence.

84

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and suddenly dies without an apparent cause.

85

testosterone

A hormone associated in boys with the development of the genitals, increased height, and voice changes.