anatomy of urinary system

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1

kidneys

retroperitoneal on either side of the backbone in the upper abdominal cavity, partially protected by the lower rib cage.

2

Hilus

an indentation on the medial side, renal artery enters, renal vein and ureter emerge

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What is the function of the kidneys

to form urine to excrete waste products and to regulate the volume, electrolytes, and pH of blood and tissue fluid.

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Renal Cortex

outer tissue layer, made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules

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Renal Medulla

(pyramids) inner tissue layer, made of loops of Henle and collecting tubules.

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Renal pelvis

a cavity formed by the expanded end of the ureter within kidney at the hilus; extensions around the papillae of the pyramids are called calyces, which collect urine.

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Nephron

the functional unit of the kidney

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Renal corpuscle

consists of a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule

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Glomerulus

a capillary network between an afferent arteriole and an efferent arteriole.

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Bowman's capsule

the expanded end of a renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus; inner layer is made of podocytes, has pores, and is very permeable; contains renal filtrate (potential urine.

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Renal tubule

consist of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule. collecting tubules unite to form papillary ducts that empty urine into the calyces of the renal pelvis.

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Peritubular capillaries

arise from the efferent arteriole and surround all parts of the renal tubule

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inferior vena cava

the renal vein takes blood from the kidney to the:

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Hydrogen

if body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine

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ADH

the hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is:

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renal tubule to peritubular capillaries

the process of tubular reabsorption takes place from the:

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glomerulus to bowman's capsule

the process of glomerular filtration takes place from the:

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renal medulla

the renal pyramids make up the

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erythropoietin

when the blood level of oxygen decreases, the kidneys secrete:

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renin

when blood pressure decreases, the kidneys secrete:

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detrusor muscle

the part of the urinary bladder that actually eliminates the urine is the:

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external urethral sphincter

voluntary control of urination is provided by the

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active transport

in tubular reabsorption, glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by the process of:

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blood flow through the kidneys decreases

the glomerular filtration rate will decrease if:

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amino acids

urea is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from the metabolism of:

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smooth muscle

urine is propelled through a ureter by:

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rib cage and adipose tissue

the kidneys are protected from mechanical injury by the:

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bicarbonate ions

if the fluids are becoming too alkaline, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine

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muscle

creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy metabolism in:

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heart, sodium ions

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by the ----and causes the kidneys to excreate

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cerebrospinal fluid

around and within the CNS

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aqueous humor

within the eyeball

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synovial fluid

within joint cavities

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serous fluid

between membranes such as the pleural membranes

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osmosis and filtration

two processes by which water moves from one compartment to another within the body are

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plasma to tissue fluid

filtration forces water out of capillaries into tissue spaces, and the name for this water changes from:

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urine

most of the water output from the body is in the form of:

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ADH function

increase the reabsorption of water by the kidneys

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positive and negative ions

an electrolyte is a substance that, in solution, dissociates into its:

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electrolytes

water will move by osmosis to an area where there are more:

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hypothalamus

regulation of the water balance of the body is a function of the:

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decrease

to compensate for a state of dehydration, urinary output will:

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increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium.

the direct effect on the kidneys of the hormone aldosterone is to:

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plasma and intracellular fluid

proteins are significant anions in which of these fluid?

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parathyroid hormone

the absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine and kidneys is increase by:

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kidneys

the mechanism with the greatest capacity to correct an ongoing pH imbalance is the:

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NaCl and H2CO3

the bicarbonate buffer system buffers HCl by reacting to form:

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the amine group picks up an excess hydrogen ion

an amino acid is able to buffer a strong acid when:

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CNS, causing confusion and coma

a state of acidosis affects the:

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increase the respiration rate to exhale more CO2

the respiratory system will help compensate for a metabolic acidosis by:

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more hydrogen ions

to compensate for acidosis, the kidneys will excrete:

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be breathing rapidly

an untreated patient with diabetes who is in a state of ketoacidosis will:

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ANP

the hormone that increase renal excretion of sodium ions is:

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sodium

in tissue fluid and plasma, the most abundant cation is:

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potassium

the intracellular cation that is essential for the repolarization of neurons and muscle cells is: