retroperitoneal on either side of the backbone in the upper abdominal cavity, partially protected by the lower rib cage.
an indentation on the medial side, renal artery enters, renal vein and ureter emerge
What is the function of the kidneys
to form urine to excrete waste products and to regulate the volume, electrolytes, and pH of blood and tissue fluid.
outer tissue layer, made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules
(pyramids) inner tissue layer, made of loops of Henle and collecting tubules.
a cavity formed by the expanded end of the ureter within kidney at the hilus; extensions around the papillae of the pyramids are called calyces, which collect urine.
the functional unit of the kidney
consists of a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule
a capillary network between an afferent arteriole and an efferent arteriole.
the expanded end of a renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus; inner layer is made of podocytes, has pores, and is very permeable; contains renal filtrate (potential urine.
consist of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule. collecting tubules unite to form papillary ducts that empty urine into the calyces of the renal pelvis.
arise from the efferent arteriole and surround all parts of the renal tubule
inferior vena cava
the renal vein takes blood from the kidney to the:
if body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine
the hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is:
renal tubule to peritubular capillaries
the process of tubular reabsorption takes place from the:
glomerulus to bowman's capsule
the process of glomerular filtration takes place from the:
the renal pyramids make up the
when the blood level of oxygen decreases, the kidneys secrete:
when blood pressure decreases, the kidneys secrete:
the part of the urinary bladder that actually eliminates the urine is the:
external urethral sphincter
voluntary control of urination is provided by the
in tubular reabsorption, glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by the process of:
blood flow through the kidneys decreases
the glomerular filtration rate will decrease if:
urea is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from the metabolism of:
urine is propelled through a ureter by:
rib cage and adipose tissue
the kidneys are protected from mechanical injury by the:
if the fluids are becoming too alkaline, the kidneys will excrete more of these ions in urine
creatinine is a nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy metabolism in:
heart, sodium ions
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by the ----and causes the kidneys to excreate
around and within the CNS
within the eyeball
within joint cavities
between membranes such as the pleural membranes
osmosis and filtration
two processes by which water moves from one compartment to another within the body are
plasma to tissue fluid
filtration forces water out of capillaries into tissue spaces, and the name for this water changes from:
most of the water output from the body is in the form of:
increase the reabsorption of water by the kidneys
positive and negative ions
an electrolyte is a substance that, in solution, dissociates into its:
water will move by osmosis to an area where there are more:
regulation of the water balance of the body is a function of the:
to compensate for a state of dehydration, urinary output will:
increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
the direct effect on the kidneys of the hormone aldosterone is to:
plasma and intracellular fluid
proteins are significant anions in which of these fluid?
the absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine and kidneys is increase by:
the mechanism with the greatest capacity to correct an ongoing pH imbalance is the:
NaCl and H2CO3
the bicarbonate buffer system buffers HCl by reacting to form:
the amine group picks up an excess hydrogen ion
an amino acid is able to buffer a strong acid when:
CNS, causing confusion and coma
a state of acidosis affects the:
increase the respiration rate to exhale more CO2
the respiratory system will help compensate for a metabolic acidosis by:
more hydrogen ions
to compensate for acidosis, the kidneys will excrete:
be breathing rapidly
an untreated patient with diabetes who is in a state of ketoacidosis will:
the hormone that increase renal excretion of sodium ions is:
in tissue fluid and plasma, the most abundant cation is:
the intracellular cation that is essential for the repolarization of neurons and muscle cells is: