Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 17 Blood Flashcards


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1

Oxygenated blood exits the heart via

Arteries

2

Oxygen-deficient blood enters the heart via

Veins

3

Blood is a

specialized connective tissue in which living blood cells, called the formed elements, are suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix called plasma

4

Erythrocytes

red blood cells (RBCs) that transport oxygen

5

Leukocytes

white blood cells (WBCs) that act in various ways to protect the body, and platelets, cell fragments that help stop bleeding

6

Erythrocytes

constitute about 45% of the total volume of a blood sample, a percentage known as the hematocrit

7

Blood is a

sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste

8

Oxygen rich blood

has a scarlet color

9

Oxygen poor blood

has a dark red color

10

Blood has a pH between

7.35 and 7.45

11

Distribution functions of blood include

  • Delivering oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to all body cells
  • Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
  • Transporting hormones from the endocrine organs to their target organs
12

Regulatory functions of blood include

  • Maintaining appropriate body temperature
  • Maintaining normal pH in body tissue
  • Maintaining adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
13

Protective functions of blood include

  • Preventing blood loss
  • Preventing infection
14

Blood plasma

is a straw-colored, sticky fluid

15

Albumin

acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the circulation, is an important blood buffer, and is a major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure

16

Blood performs three major functions

  • Distribution
  • Regulation
  • Protection
17

The buffy coat contains

Leukocytes and platelets

18

Erythrocytes are also known as

red blood cells (RBCs)

19

The three formed elements of blood are

  • Erythrocytes
  • Leukocytes
  • Platelets
20

Two of the three formed elements are not true cells

  • Erythrocytes (no nuclei or organelles)
  • Platelets (cell fragments)
21

Mature erythrocytes are

bound by a plasma membrane, but lack a nucleus and have no organelles

22

RBCs transport

respiratory gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide

23

A protein that makes RBCs red

Hemoglobin

24

Blood cell formation that occurs in the red bone marrow

Hematopoiesis

25

The various formed elements all arise from

Hematopoietic stem cell, sometimes called a hemocytoblast

26

Erythrocyte production

Erythropoiesis

27

The erythrocyte production pathway

  1. Proerythroblast
  2. Basophilic erythroblast
  3. Polychromatic erythroblast
  4. Orthochromatic erythroblast
  5. Reticulocyte
28

Erythropoietin (EPO)

a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the formation of erythrocytes

29

Anemia

a conditioning which the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity is too low to support normal metabolism

30

The causes of anemia is divided into three groups

  • Blood loss
  • Not enough red blood cells produced
  • Too many red blood cells destroyed`
31

Polycythemia

an abnormal excess of erythrocytes that increases blood viscosity

32

Leukocytes are grouped into two major categories

  • Granulocytes
  • Agranulocytes
33

Granulocytes include

  • Neutrophil
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
34

Agranulocytes include

  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
35

The most numerous white blood cells

Neutrophil

36

Eosinophils

lead the counterattack against a parasitic worms

37

The rarest white blood cells (WBCs) that contain histamine granules

basophils

38

The second most numerous leukocytes in the blood

Lymphocytes