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deductive reasoning

1) all men are mortal

2) Sultan is a man

a method whereby conclusions follow from general principles.

since statement 2 says that sultan is a man and statement 1 says all men are mortal, deductive reasoning can be used to conclude that sultan is mortal.


inductive reasoning

1) i observed the sun setting this evening

2) I have observed the sun set daily, hundreds of times in my lifetime

is a method of arriving at general principles from specific facts.


Inductive reasoning can be used to conclude that the sun must set every day.



The study of the structure of organs and the body systems



the study of the function of the organs and body system.


Hierarchy of the structure of the human body

from smallest to highest: Atoms (the smallest parts of the elements that still retain all the original properties of the element), Molecules (atoms combined, a chemical bonding that possess its own characteristics independent of the atoms themselves), Cells (specific molecules combine to form cells which is the basic unit of life), Tissues (cells combine in terms of function and type to form tissues), Organs (two or more types work together to perform a specific function), Organ system (when organs work together to perform a task), Organism (all 11 organ systems are working together within the body.)


four basic tissue types






Epithelial Tissue

layers of cells that cover internal and external surfaces and produce secretions. can only exist in sheets and cannot have its own blood supply

the shape of epithelial cells include: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar


simple epithelium

contains one layer of cells, found in body structures where absorption secretion and filtration occurs.


Stratified epithelium

has more than one layer of cells and serves as protection.


Connective Tissue

Found throughout the body; it serves to connect different structures of the body. has its own blood supply, but ligaments (which is a type of connective tissue) does not. Bones, cartilage, adipose (fat) and blood vessel.


Muscle Tissue

3 types of muscle tissue are:




Producing movement.

skeletal: supports voluntary movement since it is connected to bones in the skeletal system

Cardiac: involuntary and only found in the heart

smooth: involuntary. found in walls of the hollow organs like intestines, blood vessels, bladder and uterus


Nervous Tissue

Provides the structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, Nerves are made up of specialized cells called neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body, supports cells, such a myelin help protect nervous tissue.


Circulatory System (Cardiovascular system)

Consists of the Heart, vessels, arteries, veins, and arterioles and blood. it supports the circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body. oxygen, hormones and nutrients from food are some of these substances.


Digestive System

consists of all the organs from the mouth to the anus involved in the ingestion and breakdown or processing of food. the organs along the path include the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus. digestive tract manufactures enzymes that break down food so that the nutrients can easily pass into the blood for use throughout the body.


digestive system continued.

where does the food that is not digested go?

it is expelled through the anus.


Digestive system continued.

Where does the absorption of nutrients actually occur?

in the small intestine, which consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. After that the colon removes water from the waste that remains.


Digestive continued.

The 2 other organs that are included in the DS are the liver and the pancreas. What does the pancreas and liver do?

Liver: Produces bile that helps break down fats

Pancreas: delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in the digestion.


Endocrine System

a collection of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth,development, and homeostasis

Pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal regulate process such as growth.

the Pancreas, testis and ovaries have endocrine functions also


Integumentary System

the skin, mucus membrane and hair and nails guard the body's physical and biochemical integrity, maintain a constant body temperature, water proofs the skin, and provide sensory information about the surrounding environment also serves as a barrier to pathogens.


Lymphatic System

consists of the lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph (a clear fluid rich in antibodies), the spleen, the thymus and the tonsils which are made of lymphoid tissue. It supports the immune systems by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes. the lymphatic system also returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessels.


Muscular System

the muscular system consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones,and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints. the cardiac and smooth muscles are not included in this organ system.


Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord and nerves and it serves as the body's control system, sends high speed messages throughout the body. flight or fight response. sensory receptors detect stimuli that can occur both inside and outside the body.


Reproductive System

the main purpose is to produce offspring. this system consists of the testes, penis, ovaries, vagina and breasts. the RS is specialized in men to produce sperm and in women to produce eggs (or ova). the R organs also house hormones that encourage or suppress activities within the body.


Respiratory System

The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. consists of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx. trachea, bronchi, and lungs. the lungs house tiny air sacs called aveoli. it is through the walls of the aveoli that oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs via small blood vessels called arterioles.


Skeletal System

Provides support and protection for the body and its organs and supplies framework that , when used in conjunction with the muscles, creates movement. it consists of bones, cartilage, ligament, and joints. SS also serves as storage for minerals such as calcium ans phosphorus.


Urinary system (excretory system)

Helps maintain the water and electrolytes (sodium, chloride and potassium are electrolytes) balance within the body, regulates the acid-base balance of the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body. the nitrogen-containing wastes are by-products of the breakdowns of proteins and nucleic acids.


Anatomical Position

the position of the body to which health professionals refer when noting body planes, posisiton, or direction: the person is assumed to be standing upright, torward, palms facing forward



Toward the upper end of the body or body structure

situated above another structure, toward the head



towards the lower end of the body (opposite of superior)

situated below another structure, away from the head



Toward the front of the body (front of the body)



Toward to back of the body (opposite anterior)



Toward the middle of the body



Toward the outer side of the body (opposite Medial)



between medial and lateral



Close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment.



Away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite proximal)



Toward or at the body surface



Away from or below the body surface ( opposite of superficial)


Sagittal Section

Cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts

vertical division of the body into right and left portions


Midsagittal Sectionnn

Sagittal section made down the median of the body


Transverse Section (cross section)

Cut made along a horizontal lane to divide the body into upper and lower regions.

horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions


Frontal Section (coronal Section)

Cut made a long a longitudinal plane that dives the body into front and back regions

vertical division of the body into front and back portions


Dorsal Body Cavity

Contains the Cranial cavity and spinal column


Ventral Body Cavity

Contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities.


Functions of the human body


Receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system.


Functions of the human body continued


Transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues vie the cardiovascular system


Functions of the human body continued


Remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system.


Functions of the human body continued


Allow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems.


Functions of the human body continued


Take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system


Functions of the human body continued


hormonal control of the body functions via the endocrine system


Functions of the human body continued


Production of offspring via the reproductive system



When all the needs of the body are met and all of the organ systems are working properly, the body is in a stable state.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact

Maintaining Boundaries

The cells in the human body are Eukaryotic cells, which means they are surrounded by a membrane as are the organelles inside the cells. The membrane, which is semipermeable, allows some substances to pass through while restricting others. The integumentary system that surrounds the entire body protects it from environmental stimuli and pathogens.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact

Responding to Environmental Changes

The human body has the ability to sense and respond to environmental stimuli, both voluntarily and involuntarily. An individual's ability to physically move away from danger is an example of a voluntary response. The hand's ability to withdraw from painful stimuli before the brain preceives the pain is an example of an involuntary reflex response.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact


The primary purpose of the muscular tissue is to support movement of the body. The muscular system moves the bones in the skeletal system and this movement is voluntary. the muscular tissue in the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary, and respiratory systems also support movements, and this movement is involuntary.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact

Ingesting and digesting

The organs in the digestive system work to remove nutrients from food and transport those nutrients to other parts of the body using the cardiovascular system.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact


The reproductive system plays a key role in reproduction, and hormones regulate this process.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact


Growth occurs due to changes in several body systems. The skeletal and muscular systems change shape. The digestive system removes needed nutrients from food. The cardiovascular system transport these nutrients to the cells. The endocrine system releases hormones that signal when and how much growth should occur.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact


Once nutrients have been removed from food in the digestive system, the waste that remains is excreted from the body using organs in both the digestive systems and the urinary systems.


Ways in Which the Organ Systems Interact


Metabolism is the use of energy by cells as a result of chemical reactions within the cells. the digestive and respiratory systems supply the nutrients and oxygen that the body needs to support metabolism. the blood distributes these materials throughout the body and hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system regulate the body's metabolism.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)

is the transport highway for the entire body. consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)


An organ that contracts and pumps blood throughout the body. rhythmatic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)


Are blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)


Are blood that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)


card image

Are tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins within the body. Capillaries also serve as the location for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients within the body.


Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)

1) how many chambers does the heart consist of?

2) how many valves does the heart consist of?

1) Consists of four chambers: Right and Left atriums and the Right and Left ventricles.

2) Four Valves that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart's chambers after a contraction. The Tricuspid and Pulmonary valves on the right side of the heart and the Mitral and aortic valve on the left side of the heart.

card image

Circulatory system (cardiovascular system)

Flow of blood through the heart

card image

1 )Deoxygenated blood enters into the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava.

2) the blood travels into the right atrium and during contraction of the atrium, flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.

3) the blood is pushed through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventricle contracts, here it picks up oxygen.

4) the oxygenated blood is then carried back to the heart (by the pulmonary veins) into the left atrium, through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle.

5) contraction of the left ventricle forces blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta, and out to the entire body.


Respiratory System

Provides for air exchange and supplies tissues with oxygenated blood.


Respiratory System


The primary function is breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. This process begins as air is inhaled through the nose into the Trachea.


Respiratory System


card image

1) after air is inhaled through the nose into the Trachea the air is passed into the right and left Bronchial Tubes.

2) within the bronchial tubes are tiny hairs called Cilia, which keeps the airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs.

3) after leaving the Bronchial tubes air travels into the Alveoli; which are tiny air sacs that are surrounded by capillaries. The Alveoli permit the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur.

4) the oxygen is then transported by red blood cells into the blood stream. This process begins when the Diaphragm an abdominal muscle that contracts, pulls air into the lungs during Inspiration (the act og taking in oxygenated air).

5) when the diaphragm relaxes carbon dioxide is forced out of the body through Expiration.


Nervous System

Contains the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

Three main functions: to provide sensory, motor, and integrative functions within the body. All of these functions work together with other body systems to react to Stimuli and maintain homeostasis within the body.


Nervous System

Central Nervous System

the Brain and Spinal Cord


Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial and Spinal nerves that extend beyond the CNS


Nervous System (PNS)

1) Automatic Nervous System

2) Sensory- Somatic Nervous System

1) controls automatic body functions (heartbeat, and digestion) this system includes both sympathetic nerves (which are active when a person is excited or scared) and parasympathetic nerves (which are active when a person is eating or at rest).

2) Consists of 12-pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated Ganglia (collections of nerve cell bodies); this system controls voluntary actions like walking and talking.


Nervous System


Receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli the the Neurons (specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages) for interpretations.


Nervous System


connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a Synapse. Chemical neurotransmitters pass through the synapse to transmit an impulse to another neuron.


Nervous System

Sensory Functions

Feeling pain, heat, and other stimuli. The face, fingers and toes are more sensitive to stimuli because they have a greater number of Sensory Neurons than other parts of the body. when the body senses pain it automatically withdraws from it. This respond is called a Reflex and occurs when neurons transmit a message to the spinal cord, which in turn sends a message back to the muscles to react before the message is transmitted to the brain.


Nervous System

Motor Functions

Carry electrical impulses from the CNS to the Effectors (commonly are glands and muscles). ex:

if a person who is hungry saw a table of available food, the integrative function of the brain tells the body's muscles to move toward the food and the salivary glands begin to produce saliva.


Nervous System

Integrative Function

Uses sensory information to make decisions by joining together sensory input with memories already stored within the brain. The integrative function also uses sensory information to develop thoughts and feelings upon which decisions may be based at a later time.


Digestive system

Composed of the alimentary canal and accessory structures.

Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (made up of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large intestine (colon), and anus.

Accessory structures include teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.


Digestive system


The movement of food through the intestines.

the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines) is a long, muscular tube lined with smooth muscle in which peristalsis, rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus, occurs.

These contractions move the food along the gastrointestinal tract as the food is mechanically and chemically broken down.


What are the main functions of the kidney?

Regulate the amount of water lost from the body/ balance water levels in the body
Balance the concentration of mineral ions in the blood/body
Get rid of waste products
Hold onto useful substances like glucose and protein

Your kidneys are complex organs. They regulate the amount of water lost from the body and get rid of waste products, especially urea. Urea is made when any excess amino acids are broken down in your liver. The amino acids come from protein you have eaten.
About 180 litres of water filters through your kidneys every day, but only about 1.5 litres finally leaves your body asurine.


Where are the kidneys?

Your kidneys are just under your ribcage above the small of your back. The blood arrives through the renal arteryand leaves in the renal vein. The kidneys produce urine which is carried to the bladder along the ureter. The urine is kept in the bladder until you urinate. The muscular sphincters relax and let urine out of the body through the urethra. The diagram below shows the structure of the kidneys and their position in your body.


What is the difference in function between the ureter and the urethra?

The ureter carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. The urethra carries urine from the bladder to be expelled by the body/to the outside of the body.


Factors that influence Birth and Fertility Rates

Fertility Rates

Refer to the average number of children a women will have during her child bearing years which occur between the ages of 15-44. Fertility rates coincide with replacement rates.


Factors that influence Birth and Fertility Rates

Replacement rates

number of births needed to to maintain the population at its current number.


Factors that influence Birth and Fertility Rates

Fertility rates in less developed countries vs Fertility rates in developed countries,

is much higher than 2.3 in less developed, less than 2.1 in developed countries. ex:

Fertility rate in Africa is about 7 children per women and in Europe and developed Asian countries it is about 1 child per women.


Population growth and decline

the growth and decline Of a population in a country is a result of the difference between that populations birth and death rates as well as the number of people who immigrate to or emigrate tom that country.


Crude birth rate

the number of births per 1,000 people per year


Crude death Rate

Humber of deaths per 1,000 people per year .



tue act of an individual moving into a region Or country to live.



the act of an individual moving out Of one region or country to live in another.


Life science biological classification system


Domain, kingdom, Phylum, Class,Order, family, Genus, and species



Archaea, Eubacteria, & Eukarya


What are the six kingdoms?

1. Animalia 2.Fungi 3. Plantae 4.Protista (part of the Eukarya domain)

5. Eubacteria (Only kingdom in the Eubacteria domain)

6. Archabacteria (the only kingdom in the Archaea domain)


Classifying Individual species

the Latin name Of the genus and species is written in Italicswith the genus capitalized and the species not capitalized ex:

binomial nomenclature for humans is Homo sapiens and the common fruit fly is classified as Drosophila melanogasten


Natural selection& Adaptation

Charles Darwin

was the first to study and write about species and adaptation! In 1859 Darwin wrote On the Origin of species


Natural selection

Occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their own environment and reproduce than others.

(Survival Of the fittest)



stretches of DNA On a Chromosomes that provide information for an organism's characteristics which are responsible for heredity



Every gene exists in a different forms Known as alleles. Some alleles Contain one on more mutations [which are changes in the DNA that affect the way agene functions. '



the increase in alleles of certain genes from generation to generation that allows a species to survive and reproduce better.


Nucleic Acids

to store and transmit hereditary information


Nucleic Acids


a nucleic acid is a chain of Nucleotides. that Consists of a pentose a phosphate group and a Nitrogenous baseacid is a chain of Nucleotides. that Consists of a pentose a phosphate group and a Nitrogenous base


Nucleic Acids


a type of sugar

has five carbon atoms


Nucleic Acids


A molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links adjoining bases together


Nucleic Acids


A molecule found in DNA & RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.


Nucleic Acids

What are the five types of nitrogenous bases?

Adenine, cytosine, Guanine, thymine and Uracil.

Adenine, cytosine and guanine are found in Both DNA and RNA!

Thymine is found in DNA

Uracil is found In RNA


Nudie acids

DNA is most often Seen in what Structural form?

Double Helix

This complex is able to form because weak bonds are able to form between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen or Nitrogen atoms between bases in the Complementary strands of DNA.


Nudie Acids

Hydrogen bonds

Bond in which hydrogen atom is covalently linked to an electronegative atom but still attracted to other electronegative atoms


Nudiec Acids

adenine (A) and Guanine (G) pair up with what?

adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T)

Guanine (G) always pairs up with Cytosine (c)


Nudie Acids


Class of nucleotides with two rings

Adenine and Guanine have two rings


Nucliec Acids


Class of nucleotides with one ring

Thymine & Cytosine


Nudie Acids

Differences between DNA & RNA

1. In RNA the pyrimidine base ofuracil is used instead Of thymine base found in DNA

2. DNA contains Deoxy-Ribose while RNA Contains Ribose


Nucliec Acids


genetic blueprint Of the cell


Nueliee Acids


Protein synthesis, or the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Messenger within the cell.


Nucliec Acids.

Protein production Process of DNA and RNA

Message stored in the the basesof DNA must be transferred to the Ribosomes to make proteins. So, cells Copy the instructions in DNA into RNA (Transcription) and Send themessenger RNA to the Ribosome.Then Proteinsare made by ribosomes from tthemessenger RNA to the Ribosome.Then Proteins are made by ribosomes from the information and sent out to the entire cell. This is process of protein production from mRNA is Called Translation


Parts of a Cell


Cell wall, cytoplasm, Organelles, Nucleoid, plasmids,Ribosomes, Flagella


Parts of a Cell (Prokaryotic)

Cell wall

an outside rigid layer that helps separate the inside and Outside Of the Cell

With a semi permeable membrane allowing certain substances in and out of the cell as needed.


Parts of a cell


An inner layer which is a rich protein fluid with gel like Consistency that houses organelles.


Parts of a cell


"Tiny organs" which serves a unique function within the cell.


Part of a cell


The condensed DNA of the cell it contains genes and the genetic blueprints for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell.


Parts of a cell


Are small circular portions of DNA not associated with the nucleod. they contain a small number of genes compared to the DNA in the nucleoid.


Parts of a Cell


Manufacture proteins for the cell from the RNA messages, they are very small bodies that are free-floating within the cytoplasm.

Proteins do most of the work in the cells


Parts of a cell


Are lng and whip-like and project outward from the cell.

Bacteria also have Pili that allows communication and transfer of information between two cells.


Parts of a Cell


a cell containing a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. some eukaryotic cells live as single cells, but man esixt as part of a larger complex of cells comprising a mulitcellular orgaism.


Parts of a cell (eukaryotic)

Plasma Membrane

Which envelopes the cell an is semipermeable to allow certain substances and water in and out.

Cytoplasm which contains the cell contents d the organells and is gel-like


Parts of a cell (E)


Manufacture proteins for the cell from the RNA messages, they are very small bodies that are free-floating within the cytoplasm.

Proteins do most of the work in the cells


Part of a cell (E)

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Atubular transport network within the cell. it appears as a stack of flattened membranous sacs. there are two types of ER: smooth (smooth is not gritty, the smooth varitety is important for numerous metabolic processes in the cell) and Rough (studded with ribosomes causing it to have a rough gritty apperance)

The ER is responsible for moving proteins from one part of a cell to another and for moving proteins to the outside of a cell. (Process known as secretion)


Cell Differentiation

Differentiation produces a more specialized Cell from a less-specialized cell. To form an embryo

Differentiation determines What cell type each Cell will become. process occurs with cells in the developing embryo but can also Occur in adults.



An early stage of an organism's development, when cells have begun to differentiate.



a fertilized egg whichbegins dividing and becomes a Mass of Cells.



The most Critical stage Of development in which individual tissue layers begins to form


stem Cells

Stem cells are spcialize cells that continually self-divide and generate progneny cells for organ formation and maintenance


Totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent