Outside Hours Mosby's Essential Sciences for Therapeutic Massage

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1
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1. sternal end

2. acromial end

2
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  1. spine
  2. acromion
  3. coracoid process
  4. gleniod cavity
  5. supraspinous fossa
  6. infraspinous fossa
  7. subscapular fossa
3
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  1. head
  2. anatomical neck
  3. surgical neck
  4. greater tubercle
  5. lesser tubercle
  6. deltoid tuberosity
  7. trochlea
  8. capitulum
  9. coronoid fossa
  10. olecranon fossa
  11. medial epicondyle
  12. lateral epicondyle
4
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ulna

  1. olecranon
  2. coroniod process
  3. trochlear notch
  4. radial notch
  5. ulnar tuberosity
  6. head
  7. styloid process
5
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radius

  1. head
  2. neck
  3. radial tuberosity
  4. ulnar notch
  5. styloid process
6
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Carpals

  1. scaphoid
  2. lunate
  3. triquetrum
  4. pisiform
  5. hamate
  6. capitate
  7. trapezoid
  8. trapezium
7
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Metacarpals

8
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Phalanges

  1. proximal
  2. middle
  3. distal
9
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  1. body
  2. spinous process
  3. transverse process
  4. vertebral foramen
  5. superior articular facets
  6. inferior articular facets
10
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cervical vertebrae

  1. atlas
  2. axis
11
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thoracic vertebrae

  1. costal facets
12
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lumbar vertebrae

13
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sacrum

  1. sacral promontory
  2. coccyx
14
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  1. manubrium
  2. body
  3. xiphoid process
  4. jugular notch
  5. cavicular notch
  6. articulating facets for costal cartilage
15
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  1. head
  2. articular facets
  3. neck
  4. sternal end
16
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Hyoid

17
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Middle Ear

  1. malleus
  2. incus
  3. stapes
18
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  1. ilium
  2. iliac crest
  3. anterior superior iliac spine
  4. anterior inferior iliac spine
  5. posterior superior iliac spine
  6. posterior superior iliac spine
  7. greater sciatic notch
  8. articular surface
  9. ischium
  10. ischeal tuberosity
  11. pubis
  12. pubic symphysis
19
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  1. femur
    head
  2. neck
  3. greater trochanter
  4. lesser trochanter
  5. linea aspera
  6. later condyle
  7. medial condyle
  8. intercondylar fossa
  9. lateral epicondyle
  10. medial epicondyle
  11. patellar groove
20
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  1. tibia
  2. later condyle
  3. medial condyle
  4. tibial tuberosity
  5. medial malleolus
  6. fibula
  7. head
  8. lateral malleolus
21
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  1. Tarsals
  2. calcaneous
  3. talus
  4. navicular
  5. cuboid
  6. medial cuneiform
  7. middle cuneiform
  8. lateral cuneiform
  9. metatarsals
  10. phalanges
  11. proximal
  12. middle
  13. distal
22
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  1. Frontal Bone
  2. Parietal Bones
  3. Temporal bones
  4. Zygomatic process
  5. mastiod
  6. styloid
  7. mandibular fossa
  8. Occipital bone
  9. occipital condyles
  10. ethmoid
  11. sphenoid
  12. zygoma
  13. maxilla
  14. palatine
  15. vomer
  16. nasal
  17. lacrimal
  18. inferior nasal concha
  19. mandible
  20. mandibular process
  21. Coronal suture
  22. sagittal suture
  23. squamous suture
  24. lambdiodal suture
  25. fontanels
23
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occipitofrontalis

O: Two occipital bellies and two frontal bellies
I: Galea aponeurotica
A: Raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead

24
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auricularis anterior

O: Temporal fascia
I: Major Helix (ear)
A: Pulls ear forward

25
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auricularis posterior

O: Mastoid Process
I: Posterior ear
A: Pulls ear backward

26
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auricularis superior

O: Temporal fascia
I: Above the ear
A: Pulls ear upward

27
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orbicularis oculi

O: frontal bone; medial palpebral ligament; lacrimal bone
I: lateral palpebral raphe
A: closes eyelids

28
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orbicularis oris

O: Maxilla and mandible
I: Skin around the lips
A: It is sometimes known as the kissing muscle because it is used to pucker the lips.

29
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buccinator

O: from the alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, temporomandibular joint
I: in the fibers of the orbicularis oris
A: The buccinator compresses the cheeks against the teeth and is used in acts such as blowing. It is an assistant muscle of mastication (chewing) and in neonates it is used to suckle.

30
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platysma

O: subcutaneous tissue of infraclavicular and supraclavicular regions
I: base of mandible; skin of cheek and lower lip; angle of mouth; orbicularis oris
A: Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it (as in expressions of sadness and fright). Also draws the skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched

31
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masseter

O: zygomatic arch and maxilla
I: coronoid process, ramus of mandible, cementomaxillary tendon and cementomandibular tendon
A: elevation (as in closing of the mouth) and protraction of mandible

32
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temporalis

O: Temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull and the superior temporal surface of the sphenoid bone.
I: Coronoid process of the mandible.
A: Elevation and retraction of mandible

33
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lateral pterygoid

O: Great wing of sphenoid and pterygoid plate
I: Condyloid process of the mandible
A: depresses mandible, protrude mandible, side to side movement of mandible

34
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medial pterygoid

O: deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind the upper teeth, superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity
I: medial angle of the mandible
A: elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw from side to side

35
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sternocleidomastoid

O: Manubrium sterni and medial portion of the clavicle
I: Mastoid process of the temporal bone, superior nuchal line
A: Unilaterally; cervical rotation to opposite side, cervical lateral flexion to same side, Bilaterally; cervical flexion, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration

36
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anterior scalene

O: Transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ (C3, C4, C5 and C6)
I: First rib
A: Elevates first rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side

37
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middle scalene

O: Posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebræ (C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7)
I: Upper surface of the first rib
A: Elevate 1st rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side

38
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posterior scalene

O: Transverse processes of C4, C5 and C6
I: Second rib
A: Elevate second rib, tilt the neck to the same side

39
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serratus posterior superior

O: Nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7 through T3
I: The upper borders of the 2nd through 5th ribs
A: Elevates the ribs which aids in inspiration

40
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serratus posterior inferior

O: Vertebrae T11 - L2
I: The inferior borders of the 9th through 12th ribs
A: Depress the lower ribs, aiding in expiration

41
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diaphragm

O: Attaches to the sternum and xiphoid process anteriorly, the L1 through the L3 lumbar vertebrae and the arcuate ligaments posteriorly, and the costal margin peripherally
I: Attaches to the central aponeurotic tendon
A: Inspiration

42
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external intercostals

O: lower border of ribs
I: upper border of rib below
A: Inhalation

43
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internal intercostals

O: Rib - inferior border
I: Rib - superior border
A: Hold ribs steady

44
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transversus thoracis

O: Costal cartilages of last 3-4 true ribs, body of sternum and xiphoid process
I: Ribs/costal cartilages 2-6
A: Depresses ribs

45
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quadratus lumborum

O: iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament
I: Last rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
A: Alone, lateral flexion of vertebral column; Together, depression of thoracic rib cage

46
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Psoas Major (iliopsoas)

O: Transverse processes of T12-L5 and the lateral aspects of the discs between them
I: In the lesser trochanter of the femur
A: Flexion in the hip joint

47
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Iliacus (iliopsoas)

O: upper two-third of the iliac fossa
I: base of the lesser trochanter of femur
A: flexes and rotates laterally thigh

48
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1. external abdominal oblique

O: Ribs 5-12
I: Iliac crest, Pubic tubercle, Linea alba
A: Contralateral rotation of torso

49
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2. internal abdominal oblique

O: Inguinal ligament, Iliac crest and the Lumbodorsal fascia.
I: Linea alba, Pecten Pubis (via Conjoint tendon) and ribs 10-12
A: Compresses abdomen; unilateral contraction rotates vertebral column to same side

50
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3. transversus abdominis

O: Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia, and costal cartilages 7-12
I: Xiphoid process, linea alba, pubic crest and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
A: Compresses abdominal contents

51
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4. Rectus abdominis

O: crest of pubis
I: Costal cartilage of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process of sternum
A: Flexion of the lumbar spine

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splenius capitis

O: Nuchal ligament and spinous process of C7-T3
I: Mastoid process of temporal and occipital bone
A: Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head

53
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splenius cervicis

O: Spinous processes of T3-T6
I: Transverse processes of C1-C3
A: Bilaterally: Extend the head & neck, Unilaterally: Lateral flexion to the same side, Rotation to the same side.

54
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iliocostalis (erector spinae group)

O: Sacrum/Illiac Crest/Spinous Processes of lower lumbar/thoracic vertebrae
I: Ribs
A: Unilaterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.

55
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longissimus (erector spinae group)

O: transverse process
I: transverse process
A: Laterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.

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spinalis (erector spinae group)

O: Thoracis: Spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae. .Cervicis: nuchal ligament and spinous process of C7
I: Thoracis: Spinous process of upper thoracic vertebrae. Cervicis: Spinous process of cervical vertebrae except atlas.
A: Laterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.

57
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semispinalis

O: Transverse processes of lower cervical and higher thoracic columna
I: Area between superior and inferior nuchal line
A: Extends the head

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multifidus

O: Sacrum, Erector spinae Aponeurosis, PSIS, and Iliac crest
I: spinous process
A: Provides proprioceptive feedback and input due to high muscle spindle density

59
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suboccipital group

60
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gluteus maximus

O: Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
I: Gluteal tuberosity of the femur and iliotibial tract
A: External rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip

61
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gluteus medius

O: Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximus
I: Greater trochanter of the femur
A: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh.

62
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gluteus minimus

O: From area in between the anterior gluteal line and inferior gluteal line of Gluteal surface ilium, under gluteus medius.
I: Greater trochanter of the femur
A: Works in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh.

63
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tensor fascia latae

O: Iliac crest
I: Iliotibial tract
A: Thigh - flexion, medial rotation, abduction. Trunk stabilization.

64
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piriformis (deep lateral rotator group)

O: Sacrum
I: Greater trochanter
A: External rotator of the thigh

65
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obturator internus (deep lateral rotator group)

O: Ischiopubic ramus & obturator membrane
I: Medial aspect of the greater trochanterA: Abducts & laterally rotates the extended hip and abducts the flexed thigh at the hip, and stabilizer of the hip during walking

66
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obturator externus (deep lateral rotator group)

O: obturator foramen and obturatory membrane
I: trochanteric fossa of femur
A: adduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh

67
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quadratus femoris (deep lateral rotator group)

O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Intertrochanteric crest
A: lateral rotation and adduction of thigh

68
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gemellus superior (deep lateral rotator group)

O: spine of the ischium
I: Obturator Internus tendon
A: Rotates laterally thigh

69
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gemellus inferior (deep lateral rotator group)

O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Obturator internus tendon
A: Rotates laterally thigh

70
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biceps femoris (hamstring group)

O: tuberosity of the ischium, linea aspera, femur
I: the head of the fibula which articulates with the back of the lateral tibial condyle
A: flexes knee joint, laterally rotates knee joint (when knee is flexed), extends hip joint (long head only)

71
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semitendinosus (hamstring group)

O: Tuberosity of the ischium
I: Pes anserinus (tibia)
A: Flexion of knee, extension of the hip joint

72
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semimembranosus

O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Medial tibial condyle
A: Extension of hip and flexion of knee

73
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pectineus

O: Pectineal line of the pubic bone
I: Pectineal line of the femur
A: Thigh - flexion, adduction

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adductor brevis (adductor group)

O: anterior surface of the inferior ramus and body of the pubis
I: the lesser trochanter and linea aspera of the femur
A: adduction of hip

75
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adductor longus (adductor group)

O: pubic body just below the pubic crest
I: middle third of linea aspera
A: adduction of hip, flexion of hip joint

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adductor magnus (adductor group)

O: Pubis, tuberosity of the ischium
I: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur
A: Adduction of hip (both portions), flexion of hip (adductor portion), extension of hip (hamstring portion)

77
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gracilis

O: ischiopubic ramus
I: tibia (pes anserinus)
A: flexes, medially rotates, and adducts the hip, flexes the knee

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rectus femoris (quadriceps group)

O: anterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the groove on the iliac portion of the acetabulum
I: inserts into the patellar tendon as one of the four quadriceps muscles
A: knee extension; hip flexion

79
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vastus lateralis (quadriceps group)

O: Greater trochanter, Intertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the Femur
I: Patella via the Quadriceps tendon and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament
A: Extends and stabilizes knee

80
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vastus medialis (quadriceps group)

O: Medial side of femur
I: Quadriceps tendon
A: Extends leg

81
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vastus intermedius (quadriceps group)

O: antero/ lateral femur
I: Quadriceps tendon
A: Extension of knee joint

82
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tibialis anterior

O: Upper 1/2 & Lateral Condyle of Tibia
I: medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot
A: Dorsiflexion and Inversion of the foot

83
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extensor digitorum longus

O: Anterior lateral condyle of tibia, anterior shaft of fibula and superior 34 of interosseous membrane
I: Dorsal surface; middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits
A: extension of toes and dorsiflexion of ankle

84
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extensor hallicus longus

O: Arises from the middle portion of the fibula on the anterior surface and the interosseous membrane
I: Inserts on the dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe
A: Extends the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle. Also is a weak evertor/ invertor

85
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fibularis (peroneus) tertius

O: distal anterior surface of the fibula also the interosseous membrane
I: dorsal surface of metatarsal 5
A: dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot

86
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fibularis (peroneus) longus

O: Upper lateral shaft of fibula
I: first metatarsal, medial cuneiform
A: plantarflexion, eversion, support arches

87
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fibularis (peroneus) brevis

O: Lower two-thirds of lateral fibula
I: Fifth metatarsal
A: Plantarflexion, eversion

88
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popliteus

O: Lateral condyle of the femur, and the lateral meniscus and joint capsule
I: posterior surface of upper tibia
A: Medially rotates tibia on the femur if the femur is fixed (sitting down) or laterally rotates femur on the tibia if tibia is fixed (standing up), unlocks the knee to allow flexion (bending), helps to prevent the forward dislocation of the femur while crouching

89
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tibialis posterior

O: Tibia and fibula
I: Navicular and medial cuneiform bone
A: Inversion of the foot and plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle

90
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flexor digitorum longus

O: Posterior surface of the body of the tibia
I: Plantar surface; base of the distal phalanges of the four lesser toesA: Primary action is Flex digits

91
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flexor hallicus longus

O: fibula, posterior aspect of middle 1/3
I: Plantar surface; base of distal phalanx of hallux
A: flexes all joints of the big toe, plantar flexion of the ankle joint

92
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plantaris

O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur above lateral head of gastrocnemius
I: Tendo calcaneus (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon)
A: Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee

93
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soleus

O: fibula, medial border of tibia (soleal line)
I: tendo calcaneus
A: plantarflexion

94
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gastrocnemius

O: superior to articular surfaces of lateral condyle of femur and medial condyle of femur
I: tendo calcaneus (achilles tendon) into mid-posterior calcaneus
A: plantar flexes foot, flexes knee

95
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trapezius

O: external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, medial superior nuchal line, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12
I: posterior border of the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion process, and spine of scapula
A: rotation, retraction, elevation, and depression of scapula

96
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rhomboid major

O: spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae
I: medial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscle
A: Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall.

97
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rhomboid minor

O: nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7–T1
I: Medial border of scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscle
A: Retracts and rotates scapula, fixes scapula to thoracic wall

98
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levator scapula

O: Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae
I: Superior part of medial border of scapula
A: Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula

99
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pectoralis minor

O: Third to fifth ribs, near their costal cartilages
I: Medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula
A: Stabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall, Rises ribs in inspiration

100
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serratus anterior

O: fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs
I: costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula
A: protracts and stabilizes scapula, assists in upward rotation.

101
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supraspinatus

O: supraspinous fossa of scapula
I: superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
A: abduction of arm and stabilizes humerus see part on controversy of action.

102
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infraspinatus

O: infraspinous fossa of the scapula
I: middle facet of greater tubercle of the humerus
A: Lateral rotation of arm and stabilizes humerus

103
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teres minor

O: lateral border of the scapula
I: inferior facet of greater tubercle of the humerus
A: laterally rotates the arm, stabilizes humerus

104
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subscapularis

O: Subscapular fossa
I: Lesser tubercle of humerus
A: Internally (medially) rotates humerus; stabilizes shoulder

105
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deltoid

O: the anterior border and upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapula
I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
A: shoulder abduction, flexion and extension

106
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pectoralis major

O: Clavicular head: anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle. Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle
I: Lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus
A: As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus. It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly.

107
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subclavius

O: first rib and cartilage
I: subclavian groove of clavicle
A: depression of clavicle

108
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latissimus dorsi

O: Spinous processes of vertebrae T7-L5, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 or 4 ribs and inferior angle of scapula
I: Floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus
A: Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm when the insertion is moved towards the origin. When observing the muscle action of the origin towards the insertion, the lats are a very powerful rotator of the trunk

109
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teres major

O: Posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula
I: Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
A: Internal rotation (medial rotation) of the humerus, Protracts scapula, Depress shoulder

110
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coracobrachialis

O: Coracoid process of scapula
I: Medial humerus
A: adducts humerus , flexes the arm at glenohumeral joint

111
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biceps brachii

O: Short head: coracoid process of the scapula Long head: supraglenoid tubercle
I: Radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia on medial part of forearm
A: Flexes elbow, flexes and abducts shoulder and supinates radioulnar joint in the forearm

112
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brachialis

O: anterior surface of the humerus, particularly the distal half of this bone
I: coronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulna
A: flexion at elbow joint

113
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brachioradialis

O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus
I: Distal radius (Radial styloid process)
A: Flexion of Elbow

114
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pronator teres

O: humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) ulnar head: coronoid process of ulna
I: Middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius
A: pronation of forearm, flexes elbow

115
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supinator

O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligament
I: Lateral proximal radial shaft
A: Supinates forearm

116
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pronator quadratus

O: medial, anterior surface of the ulna
I: lateral, anterior surface of the radius
A: pronates the forearm

117
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triceps brachii

O: Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral head: above the radial sulcus Medial head: below the radial sulcus
I: Olecranon process of ulna
A: Extends forearm, long head extends,adducts arm ,Extendsshoulder

118
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anconeus

O: lateral epicondyle of the humerus proximally
I: lateral surface of the olecranon process and the superior part of the posterior ulna distally
A: It is partly blended in with the triceps, which it assists in extension of the forearm.

119
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flexor carpi radialis

O: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
I: Bases of second and third metacarpal bones
A: Flexion and abduction at wrist

120
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palmaris longus

O: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
I: palmar aponeurosis
A: wrist flexor

121
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flexor carpi ulnaris

O: medial epicondyle (common flexor tendon) and medial margin on olecranon of ulna
I: pisiform, hook of the hamate, base of the fifth metacarpal bone
A: flexion and adduction of wrist

122
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flexor digitorum superficialis

O: medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon) as well as parts of the radius and ulna.
I: anterior margins on the bases of the middle phalanges of the four fingers
A: flexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints)

123
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flexor digitorum profundus

O: upper 3/4 of the volar and medial surfaces of the body of the ulna, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm
I: base of the distal phalanges of the fingers
A: flex hand, interphalangeal joints

124
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flexor pollicis longus

O: The middle 2/4 of the volar surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane.
I: The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb
A: Flexion of the thumb.

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extensor carpi radialis longus

O: lateral supracondylar ridge
I: 2nd metacarpal
A: extensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist

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extensor carpi radialis brevis

O: humerus at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)
I: Posterior base of the 3rd metacarpal
A: extensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint

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extensor digitorum

O: lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)
I: extensor expansion of middle and distal phalanges of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th fingers
A: extension of hand, wrist and fingers

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extensor digiti minimi

O: the anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon)
I: at the extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of digit V on the dorsal side
A: extends the wrist and the little finger at all joints

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extensor carpi ulnaris

O: Common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), ulna
I: 5th metacarpal
A: extends and adducts the wrist

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extensor pollicis brevis

O: radius and the interosseous membrane
I: thumb, proximal phalanx
A: extension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint

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abductor pollicis longus

O: ulna, radius, Interosseous membrane
I: first metacarpal
A: abduction, extension of thumb

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extensor pollicis longus

O: Middle third of posterior surface of ulna, interosseous membrane
I: thumb, distal phalanx
A: extension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal)

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extensor indicis

O: posterior distal third of ulna and interosseous membrane
I: index finger (extensor hood)
A: extends index finger, wrist