Natural resistance present a birth that protects from infection.
develops in response to exposure to foreign substances. Gained after birth.
Innate defenses (non specific)
1st line defense ------ Surface barriers - skin and mucous membranes
2nd line defense ------ Internal defenses - phagocytes, fever, Natural Killer cells (NK Cells), antimicrobial proteins, inflammation
Adaptive defenses (specific)
Humoral immunity - B cells
Cellular immunity - T Cells
Monocytes - Macrophage
Histocompatibility antigens help the immune system
distinguish self from non self
Haemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
an Rh negative mother is sensitised against an Rh positive baby
The nurse is caring for a patient who is HIV positive and is taking zidovudine (Retrovir). Before administering the medication, the nurse should monitor which laboratory values?
Complete blood count (CBC)
A malignancy particularly associated with AIDS is
The function of a natural killer cell is to
kill virus-infected and cancer cells
Memory and specificity are characteristics of
B and T cells.
After starting an antiviral protease inhibitor, a patient with HIV telephones the nurse, complaining, I m so hungry and thirsty all the time! I m urinating 10 or 12 times a day. The nurse recognizes these findings to be consistent with:
A nurse tells a nursing student that the glucocorticoids given for rheumatoid arthritis are nearly identical to substances produced naturally by the body. The student remarks that the drug must be very safe. Which response by the nurse is correct?
"Side effects can occur and are dependent on the dose and duration of treatment."
20-year-old female has been diagnosed with AIDS. Laboratory testing would reveal diminished levels of:
helper T cells
A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?
The period between infection and the appearance of antibodies in the serum is called the
A 30-year-old female complains of fatigue, arthritis, rash and changes in urine colour. Laboratory testing reveals anaemia, lymphopenia and kidney inflammation. Assuming a diagnosis of SLE, which of the following is also likely to be present?
A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, low blood pressure and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:
If a person has type O blood, she is likely to have high titres (levels) of anti-_____ antibodies.
A & B
Which of the following is not a component of the innate immune system?
B and T Cells`
Hypersensitivity is best defined as:
an excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitising antigen;
A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
A nurse is reviewing the immune system with a group of nursing students. One student asks about the difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. What does the nurse reply?
Humoral immunity uses cells produced by B lymphocytes in the immune response."
A patient with a liver transplant has been receiving cyclosporine (Sandimmune) for 6 months. The nurse reviews this patient s laboratory results and notes a sharp increase in the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Vital signs are normal, and the patient reports no discomfort. What does the nurse suspect?
A nurse is caring for a patient who has undergone organ transplantation. Because the sequence of amino acids in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the donor are different from those of the patient, the nurse will expect to administer which class of drugs?
A Blood has what antibodies
B Blood has what antibodies
Both a and b antibodies
foreign cells clump together and become useless
Systemic lupus erythematosus - sever autoimmune disease
more common in females
no treatment only symptoms can be reduced
Systemic Lupus erythematosus - clinical manifestations
Treaments for SLE symptoms include
Immunosuppressive drugs - methotrexate
avoid uv exposure
possible stem cell treaments
Primary immunodeficiency (Cogenital)
is usually a genetic defect and is rare
Secondary immunodeficiency (acquired)
caused by other illnesses eg cancer, infection or normal physiological changes like aging
they more common than the primary immunodeficiency.
T helper cells CD4 cells
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions - getting through the mucous membrane or into the blood stream through sexual, blood to blood contact or perinatally.