Topic 6 Immune disorders

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1

Innate immunity

Natural resistance present a birth that protects from infection.

2

Adaptive immunity

develops in response to exposure to foreign substances. Gained after birth.

3

Innate defenses (non specific)

1st line defense ------ Surface barriers - skin and mucous membranes

2nd line defense ------ Internal defenses - phagocytes, fever, Natural Killer cells (NK Cells), antimicrobial proteins, inflammation

4

Adaptive defenses (specific)

Humoral immunity - B cells

Cellular immunity - T Cells

5

Leukocytes

Neutrophils

Eosinophil

Basophil

Monocytes - Macrophage

Lymphocytes

6

Histocompatibility antigens help the immune system

distinguish self from non self

7

Haemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when

an Rh negative mother is sensitised against an Rh positive baby

8

The nurse is caring for a patient who is HIV positive and is taking zidovudine (Retrovir). Before administering the medication, the nurse should monitor which laboratory values?

Complete blood count (CBC)

9

A malignancy particularly associated with AIDS is

Kaposi's sarcoma

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The function of a natural killer cell is to

kill virus-infected and cancer cells

11

Memory and specificity are characteristics of

B and T cells.

12

After starting an antiviral protease inhibitor, a patient with HIV telephones the nurse, complaining, I m so hungry and thirsty all the time! I m urinating 10 or 12 times a day. The nurse recognizes these findings to be consistent with:

hyperglycaemia

13

A nurse tells a nursing student that the glucocorticoids given for rheumatoid arthritis are nearly identical to substances produced naturally by the body. The student remarks that the drug must be very safe. Which response by the nurse is correct?

"Side effects can occur and are dependent on the dose and duration of treatment."

14

20-year-old female has been diagnosed with AIDS. Laboratory testing would reveal diminished levels of:

helper T cells

15

A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?

Neutrophils

16

The period between infection and the appearance of antibodies in the serum is called the

window period

17

A 30-year-old female complains of fatigue, arthritis, rash and changes in urine colour. Laboratory testing reveals anaemia, lymphopenia and kidney inflammation. Assuming a diagnosis of SLE, which of the following is also likely to be present?

Autoantibodies

18

A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, low blood pressure and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:

anaphylaxis

19

If a person has type O blood, she is likely to have high titres (levels) of anti-_____ antibodies.

A & B

20

Which of the following is not a component of the innate immune system?

B and T Cells`

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Hypersensitivity is best defined as:

an excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitising antigen;

antigenic desensitisation.

22

A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

23

A nurse is reviewing the immune system with a group of nursing students. One student asks about the difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. What does the nurse reply?

Humoral immunity uses cells produced by B lymphocytes in the immune response."

24

A patient with a liver transplant has been receiving cyclosporine (Sandimmune) for 6 months. The nurse reviews this patient s laboratory results and notes a sharp increase in the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Vital signs are normal, and the patient reports no discomfort. What does the nurse suspect?

Nephrotoxicity

25

A nurse is caring for a patient who has undergone organ transplantation. Because the sequence of amino acids in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the donor are different from those of the patient, the nurse will expect to administer which class of drugs?

Immunosuppressants

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A Blood has what antibodies

B antibodies

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B Blood has what antibodies

A antibodies

28

AB blood

no antibodies

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O Blood

Both a and b antibodies

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Agglutination

foreign cells clump together and become useless

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O -

universal doner

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AB

universal receiver

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SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus - sever autoimmune disease

more common in females

no treatment only symptoms can be reduced

34

Systemic Lupus erythematosus - clinical manifestations

arthritis

rashes

renal disease

haematological changes

cardiovascular dieases

35

Treaments for SLE symptoms include

NSAIDs

Corticosteroids

Immunosuppressive drugs - methotrexate

avoid uv exposure

possible stem cell treaments

36

Primary immunodeficiency (Cogenital)

is usually a genetic defect and is rare

37

Secondary immunodeficiency (acquired)

caused by other illnesses eg cancer, infection or normal physiological changes like aging

they more common than the primary immunodeficiency.

38

Th Cells

T helper cells CD4 cells

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AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

40

HIV transmission

infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions - getting through the mucous membrane or into the blood stream through sexual, blood to blood contact or perinatally.

41

HIV is

a retrovirus