Unit 6: Cell Reproduction Flashcards


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created 9 years ago by hstiles
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Reproduction, Cell Differentiation, Mitosis
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1

Asexual Reproduction

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The process by which an organism produces a new, genetically identical organism without the use of gametes. Ex: binary fissions, runners in plants, budding and regeneration.

2

Chromosome

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A single long molecule of DNA wound around proteins called histones.

3

Genes

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Segments of DNA that code for 1 protein/trait.

4

Sister Chromatids

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One of the two identical strands in a replicated chromosome.

5

Cell Cycle

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The series of events that take place in a cell during its lifetime.

Phases:

  • Interphase
  • Mitosis
  • Cytokinesis

6

Interphase

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Period of cell cycle where cell grows and develops and DNA replicates.

7

Centromere

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The point in the chromosome at which two chromatids are joined.

8

Mitosis

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Stage of cell cycle when the nucleus divides.

Phases:

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

9

Spindle Fibers

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Microtubules that pull the sister chromatids apart during mitosis.

10

Prophase

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1st stage of mitosis

  • Nuclear envelope breaks down
  • Chromosomes condense
  • Spindle fibers start to form

11

Metaphase

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2nd stage of mitosis

  • Chromosomes line up at the equator or middle of the cell
  • Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres

12

Anaphase

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3rd stage of mitosis

  • Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart to opposite sides of the cell.

13

Telophase

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Last stage of mitosis

  • Nuclear envelope reforms around separated chromosomes
  • Chromosomes uncondense
  • Spindle fibers break down

14

Cytokinesis

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After mitosis

Rest of cell divides to get 2 individual cells.

15

Cell Differentiation

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The process of cell modification to form specialized cells. Certain genes on the DNA are turned on or off.

16

Stem Cells

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Cells that are undifferentiated that are capable of becoming specialized cells.

17

Daughter cells

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The resulting identical cells after cell division

18

Somatic Cell

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Body Cells - Any cell that forms in the body of the organism.

19

DNA Replication

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Process that makes an exact copy of DNA. Uses both strands as templates.

20

Semi-conservative Replication

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After DNA replication, the resulting DNA has 1 original strand and 1 new strand. This is due to using both strands of original DNA as templates and ensures the accuracy of the replication.