Unit 8: Cell Reproduction Flashcards


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Reproduction, Cell Differentiation, Mitosis and Meiosis.
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biology
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1

Sexual Reproduction

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The process by which organisms produce a new, genetically unique organism using gametes. Gametes (sperm and egg) fuses together to form zygote.

2

Asexual Reproduction

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The process by which an organism produces a new, genetically identical organism without the use of gametes. Ex: binary fissions, runners in plants, budding and regeneration.

3

Zygote

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Fertilized egg. Cell that is the result of the fusion of the gametes (sperm and egg).

4

Gametes

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Sex Cells having only 1 copy of chromosomes (Haploid -n). Formed during meiosis.

  • Males - sperm
  • Females - eggs
5

Meiosis

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A type of cell division that makes gametes (sex cells) which have 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the parent. Contains 2 divisions.

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Chromosome

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A single long molecule of DNA wound around proteins called histones.

7

Genes

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Segments of DNA that code for 1 protein/trait.

8

Diploid (2n)

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2 sets of chromosomes

Human have 46 chromosomes in their body cells, which are 2 sets of 23.

9

Haploid (n)

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1 set of chromosomes

Found in gametes.

Humans have 23 chromosomes in their gametes.

10

Sister Chromatids

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One of the two identical strands in a replicated chromosome.

11

Cell Cycle

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The series of events that take place in a cell during its lifetime.

Phases:

  • Interphase
  • Mitosis
  • Cytokinesis
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Interphase

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Period of cell cycle where cell grows and develops and DNA replicates.

13

Centromere

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The point in the chromosome at which two chromatids are joined.

14

Centrosome

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Organelle that produces and organizes important proteins called spindle fibers.

15

Mitosis

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Stage of cell cycle when the nucleus divides.

Phases:

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
16

Spindle Fibers

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Microtubules that pull the sister chromatids apart during mitosis.

17

Prophase

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1st stage of mitosis

  • Nuclear envelope breaks down
  • Chromosomes condense
  • Spindle fibers start to form
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Metaphase

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2nd stage of mitosis

  • Chromosomes line up at the equator or middle of the cell
  • Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres
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Anaphase

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3rd stage of mitosis

  • Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart to opposite sides of the cell.
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Telophase

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Last stage of mitosis

  • Nuclear envelope reforms around separated chromosomes
  • Chromosomes uncondense
  • Spindle fibers break down
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Cytokinesis

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After mitosis

Rest of cell divides to get 2 individual cells.

22

Cell Differentiation

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The process of cell modification to form specialized cells. Certain genes on the DNA are turned on or off.

23

Stem Cells

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Cells that are undifferentiated that are capable of becoming specialized cells.

24

Homologous Chromosomes

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2 chromosomes of a cell that have the same general shape and the same genes, one from each parent.

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Crossing Over

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The exchange of DNA between 2 homologous chromosomes during Prophase I in meiosis. Allows for greater genetic variation.

26
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Stages of Meiosis

Meiosis I

  • Prophase I - chromosomes condense, spindle fibers form, nuclear envelope dissolves, homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing over occurs.
  • Metaphase I - homologous chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres
  • Anaphase I - spindle fibers pull homologous chromosomes apart
  • Telophase I - nuclear envelope reforms, spindle fibers dissolve
  • Cytokinesis I - rest of cell divides to get 2 separate cell.

Meiosis II - happens for each new cell from Meiosis I

  • Prophase II - chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope dissolves, spindle fibers form
  • Metaphase II - chromosomes line up at equator, spindle fibers attach to centromere
  • Anaphase II - spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart
  • Telophase II - nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, spindle fibers dissolve
  • Cytokinesis II - rest of cell divides to get 4 gametes with haploid # of chromosomes
27

Cell Plate

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A partition formed during cytokinesis in cell division in plants and some algae that separates the two newly formed daughter cells.

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Centrioles

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Paired organelles that are found in animal cells. They help organize microtubules during cell division.

29

Chromatin

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DNA and proteins folded together to form chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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Chromosomal Mutations

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Mutations that causes changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell.

Types: translocation, deletion, addition, insertion or nondisjunction

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Cleavage furrow

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Indentation or pinching-in of the cell's surface which separates daughter cells during cytokinesis after cell division.

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Daughter cells

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The resulting identical cells after cell division

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Germ-line cells

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The cells from which egg or sperm cell (gametes) develop from.

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Somatic Cell

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Body Cells - Any cell that forms in the body of the organism.

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Tetrad

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A four part structure formed when 2 homologous chromosomes, each made of 2 sister chromatids, pair up during prophase I of meiosis.

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Independent Assortment

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Describes how different genes independently separate from one another during meiosis resulting in different possible genetic combinations.

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Nondisjunction

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Chromosomal mutation where chromosome pairs or sister chromatids fail to separate properly during cell division, leading to cells having too many or not enough chromosomes.

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Meristem

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Stem cells in plants. Undifferentiated cells found in plant roots that will differentiate to form specialized cells.

39

DNA Replication

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Process that makes an exact copy of DNA. Uses both strands as templates.

40

Helicase

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Enzyme that unwinds and unzips DNA so replication can occur.

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DNA Polymerase

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Enzyme that brings in new DNA nucleotides to make during DNA replication.

42

Replication Fork

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Location where DNA replication occurs when the DNA strands are separated.

43

Semi-conservative Replication

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After DNA replication, the resulting DNA has 1 original strand and 1 new strand. This is due to using both strands of original DNA as templates and ensures the accuracy of the replication.