EXAM II REVIEW

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 6-10, 12
updated 7 years ago by Neil
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1

_________focus a beam of electrons through a specimen

Transmission electron microscope

2

A process that takes cells apart and seperates the major organelles

Cell fractionation

3

Organelle responsible for protein synthesis

Ribosomes

4

Chloroplast are present in which types of cells?

Plant cells

5

Synthesis of lipids takes place in______ endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth

6

This organelle consists of a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest food particles, damaged organelles, bacteria

Lysosomes

7

This organelle helps in cellular respiration and generates ATP

Mitochondria

8

Thylakoids are present in which organelle?

Chloroplasts

9

________ are made up of Actin filaments

Microfilaments

10

Name an organelles that contain their own DNA

  • Nucleus
  • Mitochondria
  • Chloroplast
11

_______ focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen

Scanning electron mircoscope

12

Small subunit and large subunit

Ribosomes

13

Continuous with the nuclear envelope, with ribosomes studding its surface

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

14

Site of protein synthesis, distributes transport vesicles

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

15

Continuous with the nuclear envelope, lacks ribosomes

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

16

Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae. Cis and trans face

Golgi Apparatus

17

Modifies, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

Golgi Apparatus

18

Types of vacuoles

  • Food
  • Contractile
  • Central
19

A membranous sac which contains food

Food Vacuoles

20

A membranous sac in protists

Contractile vacuoles

21

Pump excess water out of cells

Contractile vacuoles

22

Membranous sac in plants

Central vacuoles

23

Hold organic compounds and water

Central vacuoles

24

Smooth outer membrane, crostata (inner membrane foldings), inter embrace space, matrix contains free ribosomes

Mitochondria

25

Function in photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

26

Organelle with single membrane

Peroxisomes

27

Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water

Peroxisomes

28

A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Three types: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules

Cytoskeleton

29

Maintainence of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, cell division

Microfilaments

30

Organizes the cell's structure, shape, and activities, anchoring many organelles

Cytoskeleton

31

Fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables, contains proteins from one of proteins from keratin family

Intermediate filaments

32

Maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina

Intermediate filaments

33

Diameters in a middle range, hollow tubes; wall consisting of 13 columns of tubulin molecules

Microtubules

34

Maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movement in cell division, organelle movement

Microtubules

35

Contains nuclear envelope, double membrane, nuclear pore, nuclear lamina, and nucleolus, and nucleoplasm

Nucleus

36

Located near nucleus and microtubules organizing center

Centrosomes

37

Composed of nine sets of triplets microtubules arranged in a ring

Centrioles

38

Help organize microtubule assembly

Centrioles

39

Locomotor appendages of animal cells

Cilia and flagella

40

The quality of an image depends on?

Magnification, Resolution, Contrast

41

What are the two properties that all cells have?

  • Eniclosed by a membrane
  • Use DNA as their genetic information
42

The inner folded membrane of mitochondria are called____________

Cristae

43

The channels between the adjacent plant cells are called__________

Plasmodesmata

44

This type of junction fasten cells together into strong sheets and are also called anchoring junctions

Desmosomes

45

Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

Tight junctions

46

Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

Gap junctions

47

The ratio of an object's image size to its real size

Magnification

48

The measure of the clarity of the image

Resolution

49

Visible differences in parts of the sample

Contrast

50

A selective barrier primarily made of double layer of phospholipids

Plasma membrane

51

Functions of membrane carbohydrate

Cell to cell recognition

52

In which type of solution will a plant cell behave NORMAL (turgid)?

Hypotonic

53

Name the channel protein used for facilitated diffusion of water across the plasma membrane

Aquaporin

54

A type of Bulk transport where transport vesicles release their content outside the cell is known as?

Exocytosis

55

During _____ transport a cell must expend energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient

Active

56

During this type of endocytosis, a cell gulps fluid    into  vesicles (cellular drinking)

Pinocytosis

57

Contains DNA

Nucleus

58

A cell when kept in _______ solution crenates, plasmolyses

Hypertonic

59

A cell when kept in _______ solution lyses

Hypotonic

60

A cell when kept in _______ solution is flaccid

Isotonic solution

61

Diffusion of water molecule across selectively permeable membrane is called

Osmosis

62

Give an example of active transport?

Sodium potassium pump

63
  • Integral proteins
  • Cholestrol
  • Na+ K-
  • Glycoprotein
  • Glycolipids
  • Carrier proteins
  • Channel proteins
  • Trans membrane proteins
  • Peripheral proteins

All of the above are components of?

Plasma membrane

64

How does steroid (CHOLESTROL) affect membrane at cooler & warmer temperature?

At warm temperature cholestrol restrains movement of phospholipids and at cooler temperature it maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing

65

The movement of substances down their concentration gradient

Diffusion

66

Vesicles are involved in what type of transport

Bulk transport

67

Binding of ligands to receptors trigger vesicle formation in what kinds of Bulk transport?

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

68

What are three types of Endocytosis

  • Phagocytosis
  • Pinocytosis
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis
69

Movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the help of carrier proteins

Carrier mediated diffusion

70

Give an example of carrier mediated diffusion

Glucose

71

Molecules containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

Amphipathic molecules

72

Name six major functions of membrane proteins

  1. Transport
  2. Enzymatic activity
  3. Signal transduction
  4. Cell-cell recognition
  5. Intercellular joining
  6. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extra cellular matrix (ECM)
73

Proteins that have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel

Channel proteins

74

Proteins that bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane

Carrier proteins

75

The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water

Tonicity

76

A solution in which solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell and no net movement of water across the plasma membrane

Isotonic solution

77

A solution in which solute concentration is greater outside the cell; cell loses water

Hypertonic soluotion

78

A solution in which solute concentration is greater inside the cell; cell gains waterc

Hypotonic solution

79

The control of water balance

Osmoregulation

80

In what kind of diffusion does transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane

Facilitated diffusion

81

What kind of proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane

Channel protein

82

Name an example of a disease caused by malfunctions in specific transport systems (FROM POWEPOINT)

Cystinuria

83

In what kind of transport does the cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane?

Endocytosis

84

In what kind of transport does a cell engulf a particle in a vacuole?

Phagocytosis

85

Any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule

Ligand

86

______ open or close in response to a stimulus

Ion channels

87

During this phase of Interphase, the DNA duplication/replication happens

Synthesis phase

88

Which phase of the cell cycle takes 90% of the entire time required for cell division

Interphase

89

The narrow waist where two chromatids are joined together is called

Centromere

90

During this phase of Mitosis, the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes

Prophase

91

During this phase of Mitosis, two identical nuclei are formed around identical sets of chromosomes

Telophase

92

Binary fission happens in this type of organisms

Prokaryotic

93

Cell plate formation and cleavage furrowing are examples of ?

Cytokinesis

94

Cell plate formation takes place in?

Plant cell

95

Cleavage furrowing takes place in?

Animal cell

96

A complex of DNA and protein is called?

Chromatin

97

Name the two steps of cell cycle

Interphase and Mitotic phase

98

Key roles of cell division

  • Development from a fertilized cell
  • Growth
  • Repair and maintenance
99

DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into?

Chromosomes

100

These cells have two sets of chromosomes

Somatic (non reproductive) cells

101

In this phase the chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell

Metaphase

102

In this phase daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell

Anaphase

103

DNA is wrapped around which protein?

Histones

104

Name the three stages of Interphase

  • G1 phase
  • S phase
  • G 2  phase
105

The energy in the system is Constant. This is stated in which law of Thermodynamics (1 st  or 2  nd )

First law

106

The site of enzyme where it interacts with its substrate is called?

Active site

107

The non-protein helpers of the enzyme are known as

Cofactors and Coenzymes

108

Examples of Coezymes

Vitamins

109

A reaction that releases energy is known as

Exergonic reaction

110

Example of endergonic reaction

Photosynthesis

111

What does the second law of Thermodynamics say

Energy conversions increase the disorder

112

Name the components of ATP

  • Adenine
  • Ribose
  • Three phosphate groups
113

The target molecule of an enzyme

Substrate

114

These inhibitors compete for enzyme's active site and block substrates from entering active site

Competitive inhibitors

115

These inhibitors bind at allosteric sites, change shape of the enzyme

Noncompetitive inhibitors

116

Zn, Fe, or Cu are examples of

Cofactors

117

Energy of motion

Kinetic energy

118

Energy as a result of its location

Potential energy

119

The capacity to do work

Energy

120

Cellular respiration is a example of

Exergonic reaction

121

Requires an input of energy and yields products rich in potential energy

Endergonic reaction

122

How many ATP molecule(s) are formed through the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule during cellular respiration

38 ATPs

123

Name the molecule which acts as the final electron acceptor of the hydrogen ion and converts it into water

Oxygen

124

Which molecule is oxidized during cellular respiration

Glucose

125

How many ATP molecules are formed during energy pay-off phase of glycolysis

4 ATPs

126

Which steps of cellular respiration involve substrate level phosphorylation

Glycolysis and Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle)

127

During the Bridge reaction, Pyruvic acid is converted to?

Acetyl CoA

128

NADH AND FADH 2  are?

Electron carriers

129

How many total NADH molecule(s) are formed during the Kreb cycle (ONE GLUCOSE MOLECULE)

6 NADH

130

What is the location/site for Electron transport chain

Cristae of Mitochondria

131

The process through which glucose molecules are converted into ethanol and CO 2  in the absence of oxygen is known as

Alcohol fermentation

132

Substance gains electrons

Reduction

133

Oxidation and reduction reactions are called

Redox reactions

134

What is the net ATPS and NADH gain at the end of Glycolysis?

2 ATPs and 2 NADHs

135

Where does glycolysis takes place?

Cytosol/Cytoplasm

136

The Krebs cycle generates_______ATP,_______NADH, and ______FADH2 per one glucose molecule

2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH 2  

137

Which step of cellular respiration generates 90% of ATP?

Oxidative phosphorylation

138

What is the location of chemiosmosis?

Mitochondrial matrix

139

Which steps of cellular respiration require oxygen

  • Intermediate step/bridge reaction
  • Krebs cycle
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
140

How many ATPs are produced during substrate level phosphorylation?

4 ATPs

141

Where does bridge reaction takes place?

Mitochondrion

142

What percentage of energy of a glucose molecule is converted into ATP?

40%

143

Cheese and yogurt are formed through what type of fermentation?

Lactic acid fermentation

144

Substrate level phosphorylation generates what percentage of total ATP produced during cellular respiration?

10%

145

What organic molecule is produced at the end of glycolysis?

Pyruvic acid

146

These organisms are producers of the biosphere

Autotrophs

147

These organisms are the consumers of the biosphere

Heterotrophs

148

The green pigment within chloroplast

Chlorophyll

149

CO2 enters and O2 exits the lead through these microscopic pores

Stomata

150

Connected sacs in the chloroplasts

Thylakoids

151

Thylakoids stacked in columns

Grana

152

A dense fluid in chloroplast

Stroma

153

The process that converts solar energy into chemical energy

Photosynthesis

154

Photo in photosynthesis means?

Light reaction

155

Synthesis in photosynthesis means?

Calvin cycle or dark reaction

156

What are the reactants for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide and water

157

What are the products of photosynthesis?

Glucose, water, and oxygen

158

What is oxidized and reduced in photosynthesis?

Water is oxidized and carbon dioxide is reduced

159

Where does light reaction takes place?

Thylakoids membrane

160

Where does Calvin cycle takes place?

Stroma

161

Which stage of photosynthesis produces oxygen?

Light reaction

162

Name the organic molecule formed during dark reaction

Sugar

163

Which photosystem releases NADPH?

Photosystem I

164

P700 is the other name for which photosystem?

Photosystem I

165

The distance between crest of waves

Wavelength

166

Lower wavelength =?

More energy

167

Consists of wavelengths that drive photosynthesis

Visible light

168

Light consists of discrete particles called?

Photons

169

Substances that absorb visible light

Pigments

170

These assessor pigments absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophylll

Carotenoids

171

Which photosystem functions first

Photosystem II

172

In which stage of light reaction the water molecule is split?

Photosystem II

173

What is the other name for Calvin cycle?

Dark reaction

174

During which stage of photosynthesis, sugar is produced?

Dark reaction or Calvin cycle

175

Which stage of photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide?

Calvin cycle

176

Three phases of Calvin cycle in order

  1. Carbon fixation
  2. Reduction
  3. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
177

Carbon fixation is catalyzed by?

Rubisco

178

Name the organic molecule which is regenerated in the Calvin cycle

Ribulose bisphosphate

179

What is the name of the sugar produced during Calvin cycle?

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

180

ATP and NADPH is used up during which stage of photosynthesis?

Calvin cycle

181

How many molecules of CO 2  are fixed for net synthesis of 1G3P?

Three molecules of CO 2