EXAM II REVIEW
_________focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
Transmission electron microscope
A process that takes cells apart and seperates the major organelles
Organelle responsible for protein synthesis
Chloroplast are present in which types of cells?
Synthesis of lipids takes place in______ endoplasmic reticulum
This organelle consists of a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest food particles, damaged organelles, bacteria
This organelle helps in cellular respiration and generates ATP
Thylakoids are present in which organelle?
________ are made up of Actin filaments
Name an organelles that contain their own DNA
_______ focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen
Scanning electron mircoscope
Small subunit and large subunit
Continuous with the nuclear envelope, with ribosomes studding its surface
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Site of protein synthesis, distributes transport vesicles
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Continuous with the nuclear envelope, lacks ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae. Cis and trans face
Modifies, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
Types of vacuoles
A membranous sac which contains food
A membranous sac in protists
Pump excess water out of cells
Membranous sac in plants
Hold organic compounds and water
Smooth outer membrane, crostata (inner membrane foldings), inter embrace space, matrix contains free ribosomes
Function in photosynthesis
Organelle with single membrane
Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Three types: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
Maintainence of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, cell division
Organizes the cell's structure, shape, and activities, anchoring many organelles
Fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables, contains proteins from one of proteins from keratin family
Maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
Diameters in a middle range, hollow tubes; wall consisting of 13 columns of tubulin molecules
Maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movement in cell division, organelle movement
Contains nuclear envelope, double membrane, nuclear pore, nuclear lamina, and nucleolus, and nucleoplasm
Located near nucleus and microtubules organizing center
Composed of nine sets of triplets microtubules arranged in a ring
Help organize microtubule assembly
Locomotor appendages of animal cells
Cilia and flagella
The quality of an image depends on?
Magnification, Resolution, Contrast
What are the two properties that all cells have?
- Eniclosed by a membrane
- Use DNA as their genetic information
The inner folded membrane of mitochondria are called____________
The channels between the adjacent plant cells are called__________
This type of junction fasten cells together into strong sheets and are also called anchoring junctions
Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size
The measure of the clarity of the image
Visible differences in parts of the sample
A selective barrier primarily made of double layer of phospholipids
Functions of membrane carbohydrate
Cell to cell recognition
In which type of solution will a plant cell behave NORMAL (turgid)?
Name the channel protein used for facilitated diffusion of water across the plasma membrane
A type of Bulk transport where transport vesicles release their content outside the cell is known as?
During _____ transport a cell must expend energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient
During this type of endocytosis, a cell gulps fluid into vesicles (cellular drinking)
A cell when kept in _______ solution crenates, plasmolyses
A cell when kept in _______ solution lyses
A cell when kept in _______ solution is flaccid
Diffusion of water molecule across selectively permeable membrane is called
Give an example of active transport?
Sodium potassium pump
- Integral proteins
- Na+ K-
- Carrier proteins
- Channel proteins
- Trans membrane proteins
- Peripheral proteins
All of the above are components of?
How does steroid (CHOLESTROL) affect membrane at cooler & warmer temperature?
At warm temperature cholestrol restrains movement of phospholipids and at cooler temperature it maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing
The movement of substances down their concentration gradient
Vesicles are involved in what type of transport
Binding of ligands to receptors trigger vesicle formation in what kinds of Bulk transport?
What are three types of Endocytosis
- Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the help of carrier proteins
Carrier mediated diffusion
Give an example of carrier mediated diffusion
Molecules containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Name six major functions of membrane proteins
- Enzymatic activity
- Signal transduction
- Cell-cell recognition
- Intercellular joining
- Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extra cellular matrix (ECM)
Proteins that have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel
Proteins that bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
A solution in which solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell and no net movement of water across the plasma membrane
A solution in which solute concentration is greater outside the cell; cell loses water
A solution in which solute concentration is greater inside the cell; cell gains waterc
The control of water balance
In what kind of diffusion does transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
What kind of proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane
Name an example of a disease caused by malfunctions in specific transport systems (FROM POWEPOINT)
In what kind of transport does the cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane?
In what kind of transport does a cell engulf a particle in a vacuole?
Any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
______ open or close in response to a stimulus
During this phase of Interphase, the DNA duplication/replication happens
Which phase of the cell cycle takes 90% of the entire time required for cell division
The narrow waist where two chromatids are joined together is called
During this phase of Mitosis, the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
During this phase of Mitosis, two identical nuclei are formed around identical sets of chromosomes
Binary fission happens in this type of organisms
Cell plate formation and cleavage furrowing are examples of ?
Cell plate formation takes place in?
Cleavage furrowing takes place in?
A complex of DNA and protein is called?
Name the two steps of cell cycle
Interphase and Mitotic phase
Key roles of cell division
- Development from a fertilized cell
- Repair and maintenance
DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into?
These cells have two sets of chromosomes
Somatic (non reproductive) cells
In this phase the chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell
In this phase daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell
DNA is wrapped around which protein?
Name the three stages of Interphase
- G1 phase
- S phase
- G 2 phase
The energy in the system is Constant. This is stated in which law of Thermodynamics (1 st or 2 nd )
The site of enzyme where it interacts with its substrate is called?
The non-protein helpers of the enzyme are known as
Cofactors and Coenzymes
Examples of Coezymes
A reaction that releases energy is known as
Example of endergonic reaction
What does the second law of Thermodynamics say
Energy conversions increase the disorder
Name the components of ATP
- Three phosphate groups
The target molecule of an enzyme
These inhibitors compete for enzyme's active site and block substrates from entering active site
These inhibitors bind at allosteric sites, change shape of the enzyme
Zn, Fe, or Cu are examples of
Energy of motion
Energy as a result of its location
The capacity to do work
Cellular respiration is a example of
Requires an input of energy and yields products rich in potential energy
How many ATP molecule(s) are formed through the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule during cellular respiration
Name the molecule which acts as the final electron acceptor of the hydrogen ion and converts it into water
Which molecule is oxidized during cellular respiration
How many ATP molecules are formed during energy pay-off phase of glycolysis
Which steps of cellular respiration involve substrate level phosphorylation
Glycolysis and Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle)
During the Bridge reaction, Pyruvic acid is converted to?
NADH AND FADH 2 are?
How many total NADH molecule(s) are formed during the Kreb cycle (ONE GLUCOSE MOLECULE)
What is the location/site for Electron transport chain
Cristae of Mitochondria
The process through which glucose molecules are converted into ethanol and CO 2 in the absence of oxygen is known as
Substance gains electrons
Oxidation and reduction reactions are called
What is the net ATPS and NADH gain at the end of Glycolysis?
2 ATPs and 2 NADHs
Where does glycolysis takes place?
The Krebs cycle generates_______ATP,_______NADH, and ______FADH2 per one glucose molecule
2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH 2
Which step of cellular respiration generates 90% of ATP?
What is the location of chemiosmosis?
Which steps of cellular respiration require oxygen
- Intermediate step/bridge reaction
- Krebs cycle
- Oxidative phosphorylation
How many ATPs are produced during substrate level phosphorylation?
Where does bridge reaction takes place?
What percentage of energy of a glucose molecule is converted into ATP?
Cheese and yogurt are formed through what type of fermentation?
Lactic acid fermentation
Substrate level phosphorylation generates what percentage of total ATP produced during cellular respiration?
What organic molecule is produced at the end of glycolysis?
These organisms are producers of the biosphere
These organisms are the consumers of the biosphere
The green pigment within chloroplast
CO2 enters and O2 exits the lead through these microscopic pores
Connected sacs in the chloroplasts
Thylakoids stacked in columns
A dense fluid in chloroplast
The process that converts solar energy into chemical energy
Photo in photosynthesis means?
Synthesis in photosynthesis means?
Calvin cycle or dark reaction
What are the reactants for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose, water, and oxygen
What is oxidized and reduced in photosynthesis?
Water is oxidized and carbon dioxide is reduced
Where does light reaction takes place?
Where does Calvin cycle takes place?
Which stage of photosynthesis produces oxygen?
Name the organic molecule formed during dark reaction
Which photosystem releases NADPH?
P700 is the other name for which photosystem?
The distance between crest of waves
Lower wavelength =?
Consists of wavelengths that drive photosynthesis
Light consists of discrete particles called?
Substances that absorb visible light
These assessor pigments absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophylll
Which photosystem functions first
In which stage of light reaction the water molecule is split?
What is the other name for Calvin cycle?
During which stage of photosynthesis, sugar is produced?
Dark reaction or Calvin cycle
Which stage of photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide?
Three phases of Calvin cycle in order
- Carbon fixation
- Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
Carbon fixation is catalyzed by?
Name the organic molecule which is regenerated in the Calvin cycle
What is the name of the sugar produced during Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH is used up during which stage of photosynthesis?
How many molecules of CO 2 are fixed for net synthesis of 1G3P?
Three molecules of CO 2