Compared to arteries, veins...
have thinner walls
The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called...
Venous valves are responsible for...
channeling blood toward the heart
Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include...
-lack of exercise
What structure do RBCs move through single file?
What kind of vessel is also called a resistance vessel?
The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery...
Venoconstriction reduces the diameter of which vessel?
Which of the following is most likely to result from an aneurysm in a brain artery?
Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ____ percent of deaths in the United States.
What vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply?
The main control of the peripheral resistance occurs in the...
Resistance is a force that...
decreases blood flow
Total peripheral resistance is related to all the following...
-length of a blood vessel
-blood vessel diameter
Blood pressure increases with all of the following
-force of cardiac contraction
Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance
-increased sympathetic stimulation
-elevated levels of epinephrine
-irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques
Each of the following factors would increase cardiac output
-increased venous return
-decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
-increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart
-stimulation of the heart by epinephrine
If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be...
When a person rises quickly from a sitting position...
-the carotid baroreceptors become less active
-venous return is decreased
-reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs
-heart rate is reflexively elevated
The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the...
concentration of plasma proteins
When renin is released from the kidney...
angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I
Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure
-increased levels of aldosterone
-increased levels of angiotensin II
-increased blood volume
-increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
The force that moves fluid out of capillaries is __________ pressure whereas the opposing force that moves fluid into capillaries is ________ pressure.
The primary function of the lymphatic system is...
defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats
The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following
-left arm and shoulder
-left side of the neck
The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ______ cells.
The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ______ cells.
Areas of spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as...
T is to ________ as B is to ________.
thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived
If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we should expect to see an decrease in the number of...
Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include
The body's innate defenses include
Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that...
the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes
A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John
is running a fever
The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to
an antibody attached to an antigen
The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the _____ cells.
Suppressor T cells act to..
inhibit T and B cell activities
When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a _______ cell.
Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?
lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
Helper T cells do all of the following
-trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production
-enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells
-attract macrophages to the affected area
-enhance nonspecific defenses
The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their....
heavy-chain constant segments
Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are...
Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils...
The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells.
The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of...
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problem results from...
thick secretions that are difficult to transport
The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the
The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the...
The auditory tubes open into the...
The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the...
The ______ is lined by stratified squamous epithelium
The larynx contains _________ cartilages.
The glottis is...
the opening to the larynx
The vocal folds are located within the...
The largest cartilage of the larynx is the ____ cartilage.
The ring-shaped cartilage just inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the________ cartilage.
A common site to place a tracheostomy tube is through the ligament that connects the cricoid cartilage to the______ cartilage.
The laryngeal cartilage NOT composed of hyaline cartilage is the..
An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation is known as...
Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces is.....
high pitched and loud
The adult human trachea is about ______ in diameter and contains _______ tracheal cartilages.
2.5 cm; 15-20
During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the _______ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because...
large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing
The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of
simple squamous epithelium
The most superior portion of the lung is termed the...
Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in...
a loss of surfactant
The resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces is known as...
A pulmonary embolism can be caused by ________ becoming trapped in a pulmonary artery.
-masses of fat
-circulating objects in the blood
The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is...
respiratory distress syndrome
an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways
Determination of blood gases includes testing an arterial sample for...
pH, PO2, and PCO2
External respiration involves the...
diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood
Which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration?
from the tissue cells into the blood
Boyle's law states that the pressure of a gas is..
inversely proportional to volume of its container
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is...
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
If the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs
________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.
________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
Inspiratory reserve volume
If a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's....
As an astronaut is lifted into Earth's orbit, what is the first change to take place in response to the drop in cabin pressure?
decreased alveolar PO2
While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe is probably suffering from...
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is...
bound to hemoglobin
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as...
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
-is in RBCs
-is an enzyme
-can increase the amount of biocarbonate ion in plasma
-can decrease the amount of biocarbonate ion in plasma
The percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 is...
greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2