A&P II Homework II Questions

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1

Compared to arteries, veins...

have thinner walls

2

The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called...

veins

3

Venous valves are responsible for...

channeling blood toward the heart

4

Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include...

-high cholesterol

-lack of exercise

-smoking

-obesity

5

What structure do RBCs move through single file?

capillary

6

What kind of vessel is also called a resistance vessel?

arteriole

7

The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery...

elastic

8

Venoconstriction reduces the diameter of which vessel?

vein

9

Which of the following is most likely to result from an aneurysm in a brain artery?

stroke

10

Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ____ percent of deaths in the United States.

50

11

What vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply?

vein

12

The main control of the peripheral resistance occurs in the...

arterioles

13

Resistance is a force that...

decreases blood flow

14

Total peripheral resistance is related to all the following...

-length of a blood vessel

-turbulence

-blood viscosity

-blood vessel diameter

15

Blood pressure increases with all of the following 

-cardiac output

-peripheral resistance

-blood volume

-force of cardiac contraction

16

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance

-increased sympathetic stimulation

-elevated levels of epinephrine

-irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques

-elevated hematocrit

17

Each of the following factors would increase cardiac output

-increased venous return

-decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart

-increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart

-stimulation of the heart by epinephrine

18
card image

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be...

100

19

When a person rises quickly from a sitting position...

-the carotid baroreceptors become less active

-venous return is decreased

-reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs

-heart rate is reflexively elevated

20

The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the...

concentration of plasma proteins

21

When renin is released from the kidney...

angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I

22

Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure

-increased levels of aldosterone

-increased levels of angiotensin II

-increased blood volume

-increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

23

The force that moves fluid out of capillaries is __________ pressure whereas the opposing force that moves fluid into capillaries is ________ pressure.

hydrostatic; osmotic

24

The primary function of the lymphatic system is...

defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats

25

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following

-left breast

-left arm and shoulder

-pelvic viscera

-left side of the neck

26

The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ______ cells.

cytotoxic T

27

The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ______ cells.

B

28

Areas of spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as...

white pulp

29

T is to ________ as B is to ________.

thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

30

If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we should expect to see an decrease in the number of...

T cells

31

Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include

-sebaceous glands

-mucus

-epithelia

-epidermal layers

32

The body's innate defenses include 

-the skin

-complement

-interferon

-inflammation

33

Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that...

the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes

34

A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John

is running a fever

35

The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to

an antibody attached to an antigen

36

The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the _____ cells. 

NK

37

Suppressor T cells act to..

inhibit T and B cell activities

38

When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a _______ cell.

cytotoxic T

39

Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?

lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells

40

Helper T cells do all of the following

-trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production 

-enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells

-attract macrophages to the affected area

-enhance nonspecific defenses

41

The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their.... 

heavy-chain constant segments

42

Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are...

IgG

43

Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils...

IgE

44

The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta

IgG

45

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells. 

helper T

46

The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of...

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

47

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problem results from...

thick secretions that are difficult to transport

48

The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the

vestibule

49

The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the...

oropharynx

50

The auditory tubes open into the...

nasopharynx

51

The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the...

oropharynx

52

The ______ is lined by stratified squamous epithelium

oropharynx

53

The larynx contains _________ cartilages.

9

54

The glottis is...

the opening to the larynx

55

The vocal folds are located within the...

larynx

56

The largest cartilage of the larynx is the ____ cartilage.

thyroid

57

The ring-shaped cartilage just inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the________ cartilage.

cricoid 

58

A common site to place a tracheostomy tube is through the ligament that connects the cricoid cartilage to the______ cartilage.

thyroid

59

The laryngeal cartilage NOT composed of hyaline cartilage is the..

epiglottis

60

An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation is known as...

acute epiglottis

61

Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces is.....

high pitched and loud

62

The adult human trachea is about ______ in diameter and contains _______ tracheal cartilages.

2.5 cm; 15-20

63

During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the _______ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.

right primary

64

The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because...

large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing

65

The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of

simple squamous epithelium

66

The most superior portion of the lung is termed the...

apex

67

Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in...

a loss of surfactant

68

The resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces is known as...

pleurisy

69

A pulmonary embolism can be caused by ________ becoming trapped in a pulmonary artery.

-blood clots

-masses of fat

-air bubbles

-circulating objects in the blood

70

The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is...

respiratory distress syndrome

71

Asthma is...

an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways

72

Determination of blood gases includes testing an arterial sample for...

pH, PO2, and PCO2

73

External respiration involves the...

diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood

74

Which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration?

from the tissue cells into the blood

75

Boyle's law states that the pressure of a gas is..

inversely proportional to volume of its container

76

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is...

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

77

If the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs

decreases

78

________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.

tidal volume

79

________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.

Inspiratory reserve volume

80

If a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's....

vital capacity

81

As an astronaut is lifted into Earth's orbit, what is the first change to take place in response to the drop in cabin pressure?

decreased alveolar PO2

82

While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe is probably suffering from...

a pneumothorax

83

Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is...

bound to hemoglobin

84

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as...

biocarbonate ions

85

Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

decreased pH

86

Carbonic anhydrase

-is in RBCs

-is an enzyme

-can increase the amount of biocarbonate ion in plasma

-can decrease the amount of biocarbonate ion in plasma

87

The percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 is...

greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2