The Heart

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created 5 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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updated 5 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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1

Pulmonary Circuit

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-carries blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
-begins and ends at the heart

2

Systemic Circuit

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-carries blood to and from the body
-begins and ends at the heart

3

Arteries/Efferent Vessels

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-carry blood AWAY from the heart

4

Veins/Afferent Vessels

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carry blood TO the heart

5

Capillaries/Exchange Vessels

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-microscopic thin-walled vessels
-interconnect the smallest arteries and veins
- exchange materials between blood and tissues (b/c of thin walls)
-materials include dissolved gases, nutrients, and waste products

6

Each day the heart pumps about _____ liters of blood.

8000

7

The heart is about the size of a clenched _____.

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fist

8

Four Chambers of the Heart

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1.Right Atrium
2.Right Ventricle
3.Left Atrium
4.Left Ventricle

9

Right Atrium

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-receives blood from the systemic circuit and then passes through right ventricle

10

Right Ventricle

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-pumps blood to the pulmonary circuit

11

Left Atrium

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-collects blood from the pulmonary circuit and empties it into the left ventricle

12

Left Ventricle

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pumps blood to the systemic circuit

13

When the heart beats, first the _____ contract, and then the ______ contract.

Atria; Ventricles

14

The heart is located near the ________ chest wall, directly posterior to the ______.

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anterior; sternum

15

Apex

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inferior, pointed tip of the heart

16

Pericardial Sac/Fibrous Pericardium

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-surrounds the heart
-consists of a dense network of collagen fibers
-stabilizes the the position of the heart

17

Pericardium

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-double lining of the pericardial cavity
1)visceral pericardium (epicardium)
2)parietal pericardium

18

Pericardial Cavity

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-the space between the visceral and parietal pericardium
-contains 15-50 mL of pericardial fluid

19

Pericardial Fluid

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acts as a lubricant, reducing friction between the opposing surfaces as the heart beats

20

Coronary Sulcus

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-a deep groove that marks the border between the atria and ventricles

21

Anterior Interventricular Sulcus and Posterior interventricular sulcus

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shallow depressions that mark the boundary between the left and right ventricles

22

Epicardium

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-covers the outer surface of the heart

23

Myocardium

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-muscular wall of the heart
-consists of concentric layers of cardiac muscle tissue

24

Endocardium

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-covers the inner surface of the heart
-simple squamous epithelium

25

Characteristics of Muscle Cells

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-interconnected by intercalated discs
-small
-single nuclei
-branching interconnections between cells

26

Intercalated Discs

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-transfer the force of contraction from cell to cell and propagate action potentials