Saladin's Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology: Comprehensive Exam Flashcards


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1

Vasodilation is one of the mechanisms for reducing heat loss from the body.

false

2

Apoptosis indicates that something has gone wrong with a cell's homeostasis and caused it
to die prematurely.

false

3

Red blood cells are the largest cells in the human body.

false

4

Programmed cell death is carried out by a process called autophagy.

false

5

All anatomy is the result of physiology and all physiology is made possible by anatomy.

true

6

The solution D5W consists of _____ grams dextrose in ___________________

5; 100 ml total solution.

7

Which of the following correctly lists the levels of human structural complexity from
smaller to the larger structural units?

organelles-cells-tissues-organs-organ systems

8

The smallest structures that biologists consider to be alive are…

cells

9

Studying anatomy by touch, for example during a physical examination, is called

palpation

10

Studying anatomy by listening to natural sounds of the heart or lungs is called…

auscultation

11

Which of the following processes can occur without involving a semi-permeable
membrane?

simple diffusion

12

White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of

phagocytosis

13

Cells dispose of worn-out organelles by a process called

autophagy

14

The modern cell theory includes all of the following generalizations except

All cells are enclosed in a cell wall.

15

Which function is associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

protein synthesis

16

Which of the following cellular structures is nonliving?

-glycogen granules
-mitochondria
-lysosomes
-DNA
-enzymes
-nucleus

17

What organelle is most active in causing programmed cell death?

lysosome

18

What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed?

protein synthesis

19

You put half a maraschino cherry on each dish of pudding you plan to serve for dessert. A few hours later, you notice the red color has spread through the pudding in the area surrounding the cherry. This resulted from...

diffusion

20

Which of the following is the term for the study of “cells”?

cytology

21

Which of the following is the term for the study of function?

physiology

22

The largest organelle of the cell is …

nucleus

23

Which of the following terms describes human structures visible with the unaided eye?

gross anatomy

24

Which term is used to describe the maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions in the body?

homeostasis

25

A ______ consists of a relatively abundant _____ and a relatively less abundant _____.

solution, solvent, solute

26

The movement of water molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane without the addition of energy is …

osmosis

27

The process where specific molecules or ions are “escorted” through a semi-permeable membrane by a Special Carrier Protein or Gate from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is …

facilitated diffusion

28

The process where specific molecules or ions are “escorted” through a semi-permeable membrane by a Special Carrier Protein or Gate from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration is …

active transport

29

Which of the following terms refers to general bulk transport of any or all materials into the cell?

endocytosis

30

Which of the following terms refers to specific bulk transport of water into the cell?

pinocytosis

31

Which of the following terms refers to specific bulk transport of food or pathogens into the cell?

phagocytosis

32

Which of the following terms refers to general bulk transport of any or all materials out of the cell?

exocytosis

33

Which of the following terms refers to the programmed death of cells after a certain number of divisions?

apoptosis

34

If the fluid in a cell is 0.9% salt, and it is put into a fluid of 1.5% salt, the fluid on the outside of the cell would be _____ to the cell.

hypertonic

35

Which of the following is opaque?

suspension

36

Which of the following is heterogeneous?

suspension

37

The relatively less abundant part of a fluid mixture (example: the salt in a salt and water mixture.)

solute

38

The relatively more abundant part of a fluid mixture (example: the water in a salt and water mixture.)

solvent

39

Sand plus water mixture.

suspension

40

Dextrose plus water mixture.

solution

41

Blood is a…

suspension

42

Causes crenation.

hypertonic solution

43

Causes hemolysis.

hypotonic solution

44

Causes no change in the cell.

isotonic solution

45

The beaker solution with a cell with 0.9% salt solution in a beaker with a 0.5% salt solution.

hypotonic solution

46

The beaker solution with a cell with 0.9% salt solution in a beaker with a 0.9% salt solution.

isotonic solution

47

The beaker solution with a cell with 0.9% salt solution in a beaker with a 0.1% salt solution.

hypotonic solution

48

Which of the following is NOT a major human tissue type?

cutaneous tissue

49

Which of these tissues cover or line all of the body’s “free” surfaces?

epithelial tissue

50

Which of these tissues is characterized by wide interstitial spaces?

connective tissue

51

Which of these tissues can be simple or stratified?

epithelial tissue

52

Which of these tissues can contain fibroblasts?

connective tissue

53

Which of these tissues is characterized by little interstitial space?

epithelial tissue

54

Which of the following make up your epidermis?

stratified squamous epithelium

55

When you think of simple diffusion, you think of…

simple squamous epithelium

56

Which of the following are associated with exfoliation?

stratified squamous epithelium

57

Which of the following can be either keratinized or non-keratinized?

stratified squamous epithelium

58

Which of the following occur where dissolved matter needs to pass through a membrane quickly?

simple squamous epithelium

59

Which of the following occur in the kidney tubules and most glands?

simple cuboidal epithelium

60

Which of the following line your blood vessels?

simple squamous epithelium

61

Which of the following are characterized by the presence of cilia?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

62

Which of the following resist abrasion and penetration by pathogenic organisms?

stratified squamous epithelium

63

Which of the following can contain melanocytes?

stratified squamous epithelium

64

Which of the following are characterized by the absence of cilia and the presence of goblet cells?

simple columnar epithelium

65

Which of the following line your oral cavity?

stratified squamous

66

Which of these tissues is characterized by protein fibers and ground substance?

connective tissue

67

Which of these tissues is characterized by containing fibroblasts?

connective tissue

68

Which part of the nail is the hyponychium?

the area under the part you clip with nail clippers

69

Which part of the nail is the eponychium?

the cuticle

70

Which part of the nail is the small moon-shaped part of the nail?

the lunule

71

Which part of the nail is the free edge?

the part you clip with nail clippers

72

Which of the following do not develop until puberty?

apocrine sweat glands

73

Which of the following secrete an oil to lubricate and soften the hair shaft?

sebaceous glands

74

Which of the following secrete only water salt and urea?

merocrine sweat glands

75

Which of the following secrete water salt and urea plus a milky protein?

apocrine sweat glands

76

Which of the following is located with the hair in the hair follicle?

sebaceous glands

77

Which of the following is located away from the hair follicle, but secretes into the hair follicle?

apocrine sweat glands

78

Deepest layer of the skin?

Stratum basale

79

Layer superficial to the deepest layer?

stratum spinosum

80

Middle layer?

stratum granulosum

81

Layer just deep to the superficial layer?

stratum lucidum

82

Superficial layer?

stratum corneum

83

Which one of these layers is not found in thin skin?

stratum lucidum

84

Which one of these layers invaginates into the dermis of the skin to form a hair follicle?

stratum basale

85

Which of the following secrete through ducts?

exocrine glands

86

Which of the following secrete directly into the bloodstream?

endocrine glands

87

Apocrine sweat glands are which of these?

exocrine glands

88

Merocrine sweat glands are which of these?

exocrine glands

89

Which of the following secrete hormones?

endocrine glands

90

Which of the following can be white or brown?

adipose tissue

91

Which of the following is highly vascular?

areolar connective tissue

92

Which of the following is not the major tissue of the dermis, but found in the dermal papilla?

areolar connective tissue

93

Which of the following is the major tissue of the dermis?

dense irregular connective tissue

94

Which of the following is the major tissue of the hypodermis?

adipose tissue

95

In which of the following do the cells contain little cytoplasm but instead a large vacuole?

adipose tissue

96

Which of the following is found in tendons and ligaments?

dense regular connective tissue

97

Which of the following contain wide interstitial space?

-areolar connective tissue
-dense regular connective tissue
-dense irregular connective tissue
-connective tissue

98

Which of the following is transparent?

solution

99

Which of the following is homogeneous and transparent?

solution

100

The movement of molecules or ions from a higher concentration to a lower concentration without added energy is …

simple diffusion

101

Exocrine glands are ductless glands.

false

102

Endocrine glands produce neurotransmitters.

false

103

A neutral pH indicates equal amounts of H+ and OH- ions in solution.

true

104

Acid-Base Balance is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis

true

105

The blood and tissue fluids normally have a pH of 7.35-7.45

true

106

Only free hydrogen ions (H+) determine the pH of a solution

true

107

The carbonic acid buffer system has the formula CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> HCO3- + H+

true

108

Oxygen contributes to 65% of your body weight.

true

109

Carbon contributes to 18% of your body weight.

true

110

Hydrogen contributes to 10% of your body weight.

true

111

Which of the following are physiologically important cations?

-Na+
-K+
-Ca++
-H+

112

Which of the following ions is the most significant solute in determining total body water and its distribution?

Na+

113

Which of the following is the most accessible body fluid for measuring electrolyte concentrations?

blood

114

What is true regarding sodium ions?

one of the principal ions responsible for the resting membrane potential in cells

115

What is true regarding calcium ions?

-gives strength to the skeleton
-activates the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction
-activates exocytosis of neurotransmitters and other cellular secretions
-an essential factor in blood clotting

116

What is true regarding the carbonic buffer cycle?

-it is reversible
-carbonic acid acts as a weak acid by releasing H+ and lowering pH.
-bicarbonate acts as a weak base by binding H+, removing the ions from solution, and raising pH
-forms by the hydration of CO2 and then dissociates into bicarbonate (HCO3-) and H+

117

What is true for the protein buffer cycle?

-has the equation COOH -> COO- + H+
-has the equation NH2 + H+ -> NH3+
-is a weak acid to neutralize a strong base
-is a weak base to neutralize a strong acid

118

What is true regarding potassium ions?

-where sodium goes, potassium leaves
-are an important cofactor in protein synthesis
-are involved with production of the resting membrane potential
-are designated as K+

119

A chemical that releases H+ ions in solution is…

an acid

120

A chemical that binds H+ ions in solution is…

a base

121

A substance that binds and removes H+ ions from a solution when their concentration gets too high is…

a buffer

122

A substance that releases H+ ions into a solution when their concentration gets too low is…

a buffer

123

Can restore normal pH within a fraction of a second

chemical buffer

124

Stabilizes pH by controlling the body’s output of acids, bases, or CO2

physiological buffer

125

pH 6

acid

126

pH 9

base

127

pH 1

acid

128

pH 12

base

129

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates milk production?

anterior pituitary

130

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates milk letdown?

posterior pituitary

131

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates calcium deposition in bone?

thyroid gland

132

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates calcium release from bone?

parathyroid gland

133

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates growth and development?

anterior pituitary

134

Which of these produces a hormone that stimulates increased metabolism?

thyroid gland

135

Which of these produces gonadotropins?

anterior pituitary

136

One organ on the list controls one of the other organs listed with hormone stimulation. Which one of these is that controlled
organ?

anterior pituitary

137

Which of these produces all stimulating hormones?

anterior pituitary

138

Which of these produces all releasing hormones?

hypothalamus

139

Which of these produces all tropic hormones?

anterior pituitary

140

Which of these produces all prostaglandins?

various tissues

141

One organ on the list controls one of the other organs listed with nervous stimulation instead of
hormone stimulation. Which one of these is that controlling organ?

hypothalamus

142

One organ on the list controls one of the other organs listed with nervous stimulation instead of
hormone stimulation. Which one of these is that controlled organ?

posterior pituitary

143

Children have more bones than adults do.

true

144

Each osteocyte of compact bone is nourished by blood capillaries in its lacuna.

false

145

ATP is the energy molecule produced used by the cells.

true

146

Autocrine signals are locally acting signals

false

147

Tori are extra bones in the mouth.

true

148

Sesamoid bones are also known as sutural bones.

false

149

The patella is a sesamoid bone.

true

150

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are considered antagonistic.

false

151

Sutural bones are found where damaged tissue has been sutured back together.

false

152

The thyroid gland and the thymus both go through involution.

false

153

Hormone regulation occurs primarily by positive feedback.

false

154

Paracrine signals act on the same cell from which it is synthesized.

false

155

Sesamoid bones are found in tendons adjacent to joints

true

156

Bone cells that build compact bone are called

osteoblast

157

The outer layer of a bone is called the:

periosteum

158

Bone cells that consume or breakdown compact bone are called

osteoclasts

159

Mature bone cells trapped in lacunae are called

osteocytes

160

The location of longitudinal growth in the long bones of children is called

epiphyseal plate

161

The division of the skeleton containing the most red bone marrow in adults is the

axial skeleton

162

Cancers of the muscles or connective tissues are…

sarcomas

163

Cancers of the epithelial tissues are…

carcinomas

164

Mature bone cells reside in small oval cavities in bones called…

lacunae

165

Bone is laid down in concentric rings around the blood vessels. Those concentric rings are
called…

lamellae

166

The structures that allow oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from one mature bone cell to another
are called……

canaliculi

167

The shaft of a long bone.

diaphysis

168

The lining of the medullary cavity

endosteum

169

Is continuous with the tendons and ligaments

periosteum

170

Which of the following is a bacterial infection of joints?

septic arthritis

171

Which of the following is characterized by uric acid deposits in the big toe?

gout

172

Which of the following is characterized by very painful, inflamed thickened synovial membranes?

rheumatoid arthritis

173

Which of the following is characterized by painful degradation of the hyaline cartilage on the epiphysis of long bones?

osteoarthritis

174

Tennis elbow is an example of…

bursitis

175

Which of the following afflicts women three times more often than men?

rheumatoid arthritis

176

Which of the following afflicts men more often than women?

gout

177

Shoulder joints are synovial joints.

true

178

Gomphoses are synovial joints.

false

179

Hip joints are synovial joints.

true

180

Sutures are synovial joints.

false

181

Elbow joints are synovial joints.

true

182

Pubic symphyses are synovial joints.

false

183

Knee joints are synovial joints.

true

184

Which of the following have no charge?

neutron

185

C6H12O6 is an example of …

empirical formula

186

Bonds between cations and anions are called…

ionic bonds

187

What is true about the elements in the column at the far right (column VIIIA) of the periodic table?

-have a full valence shell
-are electroneutral
-are inert therefore will not react with other atoms
-are considered “happy atoms”.

188

96% of your body by weight is…

-oxygen
-carbon
-hydrogen
-nitrogen

189

The first shell or orbital of an atom can have a maximum of how many electrons?

2

190

The second shell or orbital of an atom (for our purposes) can have a maximum of how many electrons?

8

191

Chemistry is the scientific study of…

matter

192

Any substance that prevents a drastic pH shift by converting a “stronger” acid or base into a “weaker” acid or base is a…

buffer

193

Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are…

molecules

194

If an atom has seven shells or orbitals, which is the valence shell?

the seventh one

195

What pH reading is considered to be neutral?

7.0

196

Bonds between individual water molecules are called…

hydrogen bonds

197

The general name for any atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons is…

ion

198

The fundamental substance of matter is the…

element

199

For an atom to be “happy”, as we discussed in class, it requires which of these? Select ALL that apply!

-electroneutral
-full valence shell

200

Which of the following hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla?

-epinephrine
-norepinephrine

201

Which of the following hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex?

-aldosterone
-cortisol

202

Salts dissolved in water…

-electrolyte
-anion
-cation

203

What pH readings are considered basic?

7.1-14

204

What pH readings are considered acidic?

0-6.9

205

Which of the following have a negative charge?

-electron
-anion

206

A substance that absorbs H+ or releases OH- in detectible amounts in solution is a (an)…? Select ALL that apply!

-organic base
-inorganic base

207

A substance that releases H+ in detectible amounts in solution is a (an)…? Select ALL that apply!

-organic acid
-inorganic acid

208

Which of the following is/are found in the nucleus of an atom?

-protons
-neutrons

209

Substances that dissociate in water to release cations and anions (except H+ and OH-) and thus conduct electricity in solution are…? Select ALL that apply!

-electrolytes
-salts

210

Which of the following have a positive charge?

-proton
-cation

211

Bonds between atoms where electrons are shared are called…?

-covalent bonds
-polar covalent bonds

212
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the indicated structure:

epiphysis

213
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the indicated structure:

diaphysis

214
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the indicated structure:

epiphyseal line

215
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the indicated structure:

epiphysis

216
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the type of bone tissue indicated:

spongy bone

217
card image

Identify the hollow center of this bone:

medullary cavity

218
card image

For this adult long bone, identify the type of bone tissue indicated:

compact bone

219
card image

Identify the structure with the * (asterisk):

central canal

220
card image

Identify the “squiggly lines” in the illustration:

canaliculi

221
card image

Identify the “dark ovals” in the illustration:

lacunae

222
card image

Identify the “concentric rings like in an onion” in the illustration:

lamellae

223
card image

Identify the entire structure in the bracket in the illustration:

osteon

224

List a hormone that regulates calcium in bone.

-calcitonin
-PTH
-parathyroid hormone