Chapter 16 & 17

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Microbiology
Chapters 16, 17
Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host
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1

The ability to ward off disease through body defenses is called __________

immunity

2

Lack of immunity is called ________________

susceptibility

3

Innate immunity:

Inborn defenses against any pathogen (always there)

4

Adaptive immunity: Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen

Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen

5

The body’s first line of defense against infections is

a physical barrier and the nonspecific chemicals
of the healthy skin and mucous membranes.

6

True or False
Some pathogens can penetrate mucous membranes.

true

7

_______ traps many microorganisms that enter the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

Mucus

8

in the lower respiratory tract, the _____________ moves mucus up and out.

ciliary escalator

9

Second line of defense A microbe’s penetration of the first line of defense encourages production of phagocytes, inflammation,
fever, and antimicrobial substances.

encourages production of phagocytes, inflammation,
fever, and antimicrobial substances.

10

True or False During many infections, the number of leukocytes increases (leukocytosis);

True

11

True or False some infections are characterized by leukopenia (decrease in leukocytes).

True

12

Phagocytosis is the

ingestion of microorganisms or particulate matter by a cell

13

__________ are the most important phagocytes

neutrophils

14

___________ is a bodily response to cell damage;

Inflammation

15

Inflammation is characterized by
-
-
-
-
-

redness,
pain,
heat,
swelling,
and sometimes the loss of function

16

List the steps of Inflammation
-
-
-

1. Chemicals released by damaged cells. (histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and cytokines)

2. Blood clot forms

3. Abscess starts to form (dark yellow area

17

_________ can form around an abscess to prevent dissemination of the infection

Blood clots

18

Fever is an

an abnormally high body temperature produced in response to a bacterial or viral infection

19

Compliment 3 does nothing until it splits into

C3A and C3B

20

C3B causes

opsonization

21

opsonization

coats the intruder to make him more delicious to the wbc's

22

__________ consists of a group of serum proteins that activate one another to destroy
invading microorganisms

The complement system

23

Complement proteins are activated in a ________

cascade

24

_____ activation can result in cell lysis, inflammation, and opsonization

C3

25

Interferons (IFNs) are

antiviral proteins produced in response to viral infection

26

True or False
Interferons are host-cell–specific but not virus-specific

True

27

The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens

Serology

28

Antiserum

The generic term for serum because it contains Ab

29

Globulins:

Serum proteins

30

Immunoglobulins:

Antibodies

31

Gamma () globulin:

Gamma () globulin: Serum fraction containing Ab

32

4 Types of Adaptive Immunity

1. Naturally acquired active Immunity
2. Naturally acquired passive immunity
3. Artificially acquired active immunity
4. Artificially acquired passive immunity

33

Resulting from infection

...

34

An antigen (or immunogen) is a

chemical substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies

35

antigens are proteins or large polysaccharides

proteins or large polysaccharides

36

The Y part of the antibody is called the
a) variable
b) constang

A. variable

37

the variable reason can pick up

2

38

what are the 5 antibodies

IgG
IgM

39

True or False
Antibodies are formed against specific
regions on antigens called epitopes, or antigenic determinants.

True

40

An antibody, or immunoglobulin, is a protein produced by __________

B cells

41

Typical monomers consist of _______ polypeptide chains:

four

42

The 4 Typical polypeptide chains:

two heavy chains and two light chains.

43

Is the antibody produced by b cells humoral or adaptive

Humoral

44

__________ immunity involves antibodies

Humoral

45

_________ immunity involves T cells

Cellular

46

1.___________ region that binds the epitope and a 2.___________ region that distinguishes the different classes of antibodies.
a)constant (c)
b)variable (V)

1. B
2. C

47

An antibody monomer is ___-shaped or ____-shaped:

Y or T

48

the 1.______ form the tips, the 2.______ form the
base and FC (stem) region

1. V recions form the tips
2. the C regions form the Base