What is the site where two or more bones met
What are the functions of joints
give skeleton mobility, hold skeleton together
What are the classifications of joints
What is the functional classification of joints based on
the amount of movement the joint allows
What are the functional classifications of joints
synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
What functional classification of joints describes immovable joints
What functional classification of joints describes slightly movable joints
What functional classification of joints describes freely movable joints
The ribs to sternum (when giving CPR) is an example of what functional classification of joints
What are the structural classifications of joints based on
the material binding bones together, and the presence or absence of a joint cavity
What are the structural classifications of joints
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Most fibrous joints are what functional classification
What are the types of fibrous joints
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
What type of fibrous joint are rigid, interlocking joints that are immovable (for protection of the brain), contain short connective tissue fibers, and allow for growth during youth
In middle age, sutures ossify and fuse, forming..?
What type of fibrous joints include bones connected by ligaments, with fiber length varying so movement varies (little to no movement at inferior tibiofibular joint; large amount of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna)
What type of fibrous joint are peg-in-socket joints of the teeth in alveolar sockets
In gomphoses fibrous joints, what is the fibrous connection called
What type of joint have no joint cavity, are not highly movable, and include bones united by cartilage
What are the types of cartilaginous joints
What type of cartilaginous joint includes a bar/plate of hyaline cartilage that unites bone (i.e. temporary epiphyseal plate joints, cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium) and are considered synarthrotic
What type of cartilaginous joint include fibrocartilage that unites bone; strong, flexible amphiarthroses
What type of joint includes bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity; all are diarthrotic, and includes all limb joints, and most joints of the body
What are the distinguishing factors of synovial joints
articular cartilage, joint (synovial) cavity, articular joint capsule, synovial fluid, different types of reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels
In synovial joints, what are the two layers of the articular (joint) capsule
external fibrous layer, inner synovial membrane that makes synovial fluid
What lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage, and contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris
In synovial joints, what are the different types of reinforcing ligaments
capsular, extracapsular, intracapsular
In synovial joints, what is the cushioning between the fibrous layer and synovial membrane or bone
In synovial joints, what is the fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces to improve the fit of bone ends, stabilize the joint, and reduce wear and tear
articular discs (menisci)
What structure associated with synovial joints are sacs lined with synovial membrane that reduce friction where ligaments, muscle, skin, tendons and bones rub together
What structure associated with synovial joints are elongated bursa wrapped completely around the tendon subjected to friction
What are the stabilizing factors at synovial joints
shapes of articular surfaces, ligament number and location, muscle tendons that cross joints
In synovial joints, what is the point where muscle attaches to the immovable bone
In synovial joints, what is the point where muscle attaches to the movable bone
In synovial joints, what is the slipping movement called
In synovial joints, what is movement in one plane called
In synovial joints, what is movement in two planes
In synovial joints, what is movement in or around all three planes
What are the types of movements in synovial joints
gliding, angular movements, and rotation
Flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction and circumduction are all what type of movement
Intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, and between articular processes of vertebrae are examples of what type of movement
What type of movement along the sagittal plane decreases the angle of a joint
What type of movement along the sagittal plane increases the angle of a joint
What is movement beyond the anatomical position
What type of movement along the frontal plane is movement away from the midline
What type of movement along the frontal plane is movement toward the midline
What type of movement involves flexion abduction, extension, and adduction of the limb (limb describes a cone in space)
What movement is turning of bone around its own long axis, toward the midline or away from it (medial or lateral)
What type of movement is palms facing up, as an example (of radius and ulna)
What type of movement would be palms facing down (of radius and ulna)
What type of movement of the foot would be foot/toes flexing upwards
What type of movement of the foot would be pointing your toes
What type of movement would be jutting your jaw out forward, away from the body
What type of movement would be pulling your jaw inward, towards the body
Which type of synovial joint are flat articular surfaces with nonaxial gliding movement, such as in intercarpal joints and joints between vertebral articular surfaces?
What type of joint is the elbow joint and interphalangeal joints, that use uniaxial movements, flexion and extension?
What type of joint are the proximal radioulnar joints, involves a sleeve and axle, with rotation movement?
What type of joint are knuckle and wrist joints, with biaxial movement (flexion and extension, adduction and abduction)
What type of joint is the thumb joint, with biaxial movement (flexion and extension, adduction and abduction) and convex and concave articular surfaces?
What type of joint is the shoulder and hip?
ball and socket joint
What is the largest, most complex joint in the body
The knee joint includes three joints. They are?
femoropatellar joint, lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints
Which joint includes four rotator cuff tendons
What type of joint injury is reinforcing ligaments stretched or torn?
In what type of joint injury are bones forced out of alignment?
What is the partial dislocation of a joint?
What is inflammation of the bursa?
What is inflammation of the tendon sheath typically caused by overuse?
What is common, irreversible, degenerative wear and tear?
What is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause that includes joint pain and swelling
What is the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation?