Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 8- Joints Flashcards


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1

What is the site where two or more bones met

Joints (articulations)

2

What are the functions of joints

give skeleton mobility, hold skeleton together

3

What are the classifications of joints

functional, structural

4

What is the functional classification of joints based on

the amount of movement the joint allows

5

What are the functional classifications of joints

synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses

6

What functional classification of joints describes immovable joints

synarthroses

7

What functional classification of joints describes slightly movable joints

amphiarthroses

8

What functional classification of joints describes freely movable joints

diarthroses

9

The ribs to sternum (when giving CPR) is an example of what functional classification of joints

amphiarthroses

10

What are the structural classifications of joints based on

the material binding bones together, and the presence or absence of a joint cavity

11

What are the structural classifications of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

12

Most fibrous joints are what functional classification

synarthrotic

13

What are the types of fibrous joints

sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

14

What type of fibrous joint are rigid, interlocking joints that are immovable (for protection of the brain), contain short connective tissue fibers, and allow for growth during youth

sutures

15

In middle age, sutures ossify and fuse, forming..?

synostoses

16

What type of fibrous joints include bones connected by ligaments, with fiber length varying so movement varies (little to no movement at inferior tibiofibular joint; large amount of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna)

syndesmoses

17

What type of fibrous joint are peg-in-socket joints of the teeth in alveolar sockets

gomphoses

18

In gomphoses fibrous joints, what is the fibrous connection called

periodontal ligament

19

What type of joint have no joint cavity, are not highly movable, and include bones united by cartilage

cartilaginous joints

20

What are the types of cartilaginous joints

synchondroses, symphyses

21

What type of cartilaginous joint includes a bar/plate of hyaline cartilage that unites bone (i.e. temporary epiphyseal plate joints, cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium) and are considered synarthrotic

synchondroses

22

What type of cartilaginous joint include fibrocartilage that unites bone; strong, flexible amphiarthroses

symphyses

23

What type of joint includes bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity; all are diarthrotic, and includes all limb joints, and most joints of the body

synovial joints

24

What are the distinguishing factors of synovial joints

articular cartilage, joint (synovial) cavity, articular joint capsule, synovial fluid, different types of reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels

25

In synovial joints, what are the two layers of the articular (joint) capsule

external fibrous layer, inner synovial membrane that makes synovial fluid

26

What lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage, and contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris

synovial fluid

27

In synovial joints, what are the different types of reinforcing ligaments

capsular, extracapsular, intracapsular

28

In synovial joints, what is the cushioning between the fibrous layer and synovial membrane or bone

fatty pads

29

In synovial joints, what is the fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces to improve the fit of bone ends, stabilize the joint, and reduce wear and tear

articular discs (menisci)

30

What structure associated with synovial joints are sacs lined with synovial membrane that reduce friction where ligaments, muscle, skin, tendons and bones rub together

bursae

31

What structure associated with synovial joints are elongated bursa wrapped completely around the tendon subjected to friction

tendon sheaths

32

What are the stabilizing factors at synovial joints

shapes of articular surfaces, ligament number and location, muscle tendons that cross joints

33

In synovial joints, what is the point where muscle attaches to the immovable bone

origin

34

In synovial joints, what is the point where muscle attaches to the movable bone

insertion

35

In synovial joints, what is the slipping movement called

nonaxial

36

In synovial joints, what is movement in one plane called

uniaxial

37

In synovial joints, what is movement in two planes

biaxial

38

In synovial joints, what is movement in or around all three planes

multiaxial

39

What are the types of movements in synovial joints

gliding, angular movements, and rotation

40

Flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction and circumduction are all what type of movement

angular

41

Intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, and between articular processes of vertebrae are examples of what type of movement

gliding

42

What type of movement along the sagittal plane decreases the angle of a joint

flexion

43

What type of movement along the sagittal plane increases the angle of a joint

extension

44

What is movement beyond the anatomical position

hyperextension

45

What type of movement along the frontal plane is movement away from the midline

abduction

46

What type of movement along the frontal plane is movement toward the midline

adduction

47

What type of movement involves flexion abduction, extension, and adduction of the limb (limb describes a cone in space)

circumduction

48

What movement is turning of bone around its own long axis, toward the midline or away from it (medial or lateral)

rotation

49

What type of movement is palms facing up, as an example (of radius and ulna)

supination

50

What type of movement would be palms facing down (of radius and ulna)

pronation

51

What type of movement of the foot would be foot/toes flexing upwards

dorsiflexion

52

What type of movement of the foot would be pointing your toes

flexion

53

What type of movement would be jutting your jaw out forward, away from the body

protraction

54

What type of movement would be pulling your jaw inward, towards the body

retraction

55

Which type of synovial joint are flat articular surfaces with nonaxial gliding movement, such as in intercarpal joints and joints between vertebral articular surfaces?

plane joints

56

What type of joint is the elbow joint and interphalangeal joints, that use uniaxial movements, flexion and extension?

hinge joint

57

What type of joint are the proximal radioulnar joints, involves a sleeve and axle, with rotation movement?

pivot joint

58

What type of joint are knuckle and wrist joints, with biaxial movement (flexion and extension, adduction and abduction)

condyler joint

59

What type of joint is the thumb joint, with biaxial movement (flexion and extension, adduction and abduction) and convex and concave articular surfaces?

saddle joint

60

What type of joint is the shoulder and hip?

ball and socket joint

61

What is the largest, most complex joint in the body

knee joint

62

The knee joint includes three joints. They are?

femoropatellar joint, lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints

63

Which joint includes four rotator cuff tendons

Shoulder joint

64

What type of joint injury is reinforcing ligaments stretched or torn?

sprains

65

In what type of joint injury are bones forced out of alignment?

dislocations (luxations)

66

What is the partial dislocation of a joint?

subluxation

67

What is inflammation of the bursa?

bursitis

68

What is inflammation of the tendon sheath typically caused by overuse?

tendonitis

69

What is common, irreversible, degenerative wear and tear?

osteoarthritis

70

What is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause that includes joint pain and swelling

rheumatoid arthritis

71

What is the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation?

gouty arthritis