Microbiology Chapter 25 Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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Microbiology
Chapter 25
Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract
updated 6 years ago by cjsaslo
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1

Diseases of the ___________ are the second most common illnesses in the United States.

digestive system

2

Diseases of the digestive system usually result from ingesting _____________________________

microorganisms or their toxins in food
and water

3

The fecal–oral cycle of transmission can be broken by the:
____________________
____________________
____________________.

proper disposal of sewage,
the disinfection of drinking water,
and proper food preparation and storage

4

True or False
Small numbers of bacteria colonize the mouth

False:
Large numbers of bacteria colonize the mouth

5

True or False:
The stomach and small intestine have a lot of resident microorganisms

False
The stomach and small intestine have few resident microorganisms

6

Bacteria in the large intestine assist ______________________________________

in degrading food and synthesizing vitamins

7

Up to _____ of fecal mass is microbial cells

40%

8

_______________, found in the mouth, uses sucrose to form dextran from glucose and lactic acid
from fructose

Streptococcus mutans

9

Bacteria adhere to teeth by the sticky _________, forming dental plaque

dextran

10

Caries of the cementum and gingivitis are caused by
-
-
-

streptococci,
actinomycetes,
and anaerobic gram-negative bacteria

11

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is often caused by -----------------

Prevotella intermedia

12

Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by the ingestion of an _________ produced in improperly
stored foods.

enterotoxin

13

S. aureus is inoculated into foods during __________. The bacteria grow and produce enterotoxin in food stored at room temperature

preparation

14

True or False
Boiling for 30 minutes is not sufficient to denature the exotoxin

True

15

Foods with high osmotic pressure (like salt) and those not cooked immediately before consumption are most
often the source of _____________________________

staphylococcal enterotoxicosis

16

Shigellosis (Bavillary Dysentery) is caused by any of four species of ______________

Shigella

17

Symptoms include blood and mucus in stools, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Symptoms of Shigellosis

18

Infections by __________result in ulceration of the intestinal mucosa

S. dysenteriae

19

Salmonellosis, or Salmonella gastroenteritis, is caused by many ____________________________

Salmonella enterica serovars.

20

Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea and begin 12 to 36 hours after eating large numbers of Salmonella

Salmonellosis

21

True or False
Salmonellosis can cause Septic shock to occur in infants and in the elderly

True

22

True or False
Cooking food will usually kill Salmonella

True

23

_________ causes typhoid fever; the bacteria are transmitted by contact with human feces

Salmonella typhi

24

S. typhi is harbored in the ___________ of carriers

gallbladder

25

Typhoid fever is treated with ___________ and ________

quinolones and cephalosporins

26

Vibrio cholerae O:1 and O:139 produce an exotoxin that ________________________________________

alters the membrane permeability of the intestinal
mucosa

27

Vibrio gastroenteritis can be caused by ______________________ and _______________________

V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus

28

Noncholera Vibrios diseases are contracted by __________________________________

eating contaminated crustaceans or contaminated mollusks

29

Traveler’s diarrhea may be caused by enterotoxigenic or enteroinvasive strains of __________.

E. coli

30

___________ is the second most common cause of diarrhea in the United States

Campylobacter

31

Campylobacter is transmitted in

unpasteurized cow’s milk or fruit juices and poorly cooked

32

___________________ produces ammonia, which neutralizes stomach acid; the bacteria colonize the stomach
mucosa and cause peptic ulcer disease.

Helicobacter pylori

33

with Yersinia Gastroenteritis ____________ and _______________ are transmitted in meat and milk.

Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis

34

True or False:
Yersinia can grow at refrigeration temperatures

True

35

Growth of__________ following antibiotic therapy can result in mild diarrhea or severe colitis.

C. difficile

36

True or false C. diff condition is usually associated with hospitalized patients and nursing home residents.

true

37

Mumps virus enters and exits the body through the ____________________

respiratory tract

38

This virus causes inflammation of the parotid glands, fever, and
pain during swallowing. About 4 to 7 days later, orchitis may occur in males.

Mumps

39

With Mumps After onset of the symptoms, the virus is found in the
-
-
-

blood, saliva, and urine

40

Inflammation of the liver is called _________

hepatitis

41

Viral causes of hepatitis include hepatitis viruses, _____________ (___), and ____________ (___).

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)

42

_____________ (____) causes hepatitis A

Hepatitis A virus (HAV

43

HAV is ingested in contaminated food or water

ingested in contaminated food or water,

44

HAV grows in the

cells of the intestinal mucosa, and
spreads to the liver, kidneys, and spleen in the blood

45

The virus is eliminated with ________

feces

46

_____________ causes hepatitis B, which is frequently serious

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

47

HBV is transmitted by

blood transfusions, contaminated syringes, saliva, sweat, breast milk, and
semen

48

True or False
The average incubation period is 3 months; recovery is usually complete, but some patients develop
a chronic infection or become carriers.

True

49

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted via

blood

50

Viral gastroenteritis is most often caused by a ___________ or _________________

rotavirus or norovirus

51

Ergot poisoning, or ergotism, is caused by the mycotoxin produced by _______________

Claviceps purpurea

52

____________ are the crop most often contaminated with the Claviceps mycotoxin

Cereal grains

53

Giardia lamblia grows in the intestines of humans and wild animals and is transmitted in

contaminated water

54

Cryptosporidiosis causative agent is

Crytosporidium hominis

55

Crytosporidium hominis causes diarrhea

diarrhea

56

Crytosporidium hominis is transmitted in

contaminated water

57

Cyclospora Diarrheal Infection is caused by

C. cayetanensis

58

Cyclospora Diarrheal Infection is transmited by

contaminated produce

59

Amoebic dysentery is caused by ___________________ growing in the large intestine

Entamoeba histolytica

60

Tapeworms are contracted by the consumption of _____________________ containing
encysted larvae (cysticerci

undercooked beef, pork, or fish

61

The ________ attaches to the intestinal mucosa of humans (the definitive host) and matures into an adult
tapeworm

scolex

62

_________________ in humans occurs when the pork tapeworm larvae encyst in humans

Neurocysticercosis

63

Humans are the __________ host for pinworms

definitive

64

Pinworms are acquired by

is acquired by ingesting Enterobius eggs

65

how do you contract hookworms

Hookworm larvae bore through skin and migrate to the intestine to mature into adults

66

hookworm larvae hatch from eggs _________

shed in feces

67

Ascariasis is caused by

. Ascaris lumbricoides

68

Ascaris lumbricoides adults live in _________________

human intestines

69

Ascariasis is acquired by _____________

ingesting Ascaris eggs

70

Trichinellosis is contracted by

contracted by ingesting undercooked meat containing larvae

71

Adult females mature in the 1._______ and lay eggs; the new larvae migrate to invade 2._______

1. intestine
2. muscles

72

Trichinellosis Symptoms include

fever, swelling around the eyes, and gastrointestinal upset