Test #1 Review

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 1-5
updated 6 years ago by Neil
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College: First year
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1

Group of cells combine to form

Tissue

2

The example of Jack rabbit exchanging heat with the environment and maintaining constant body temperature shows which living characteristic of living organisms?

Regulation

3

Viruses that infect and takeover bacteria are called?

Bacteriophage

4

What type of data involve descriptions rather than measurements?

Qualitative

5

Name the organisms that can only replicate/divide when inside its host

Viruses

6

The branch of science that helps in naming, identification and classification of species is called?

Taxonomy

7

Kingdom is the broadest unit of classification. True or False

False

8

The Kingdom Fungi is grouped under which domain?

domain Eukarya

9

What is the total number of domains under which all living organisms are classified into?

Three

10

Give any example of an Ecosystem

Desert, Rainforest, Deciduous forest, grassland, ocean, tundra, coral reef etc...

11

Name the characteristics of life

Order
Regulation
Energy processing
Evolutionary adaptation
Growth/development
Response to the environment
Reproduction

12

What are characteristics of Viruses?

A borrowed life

13

What is the name of the largest virus discovered?

Mimivirus

14

How many species are identified and named to date?

approx. 1.8 million

15

Name the three domains

domain Bacteria
domain Eukarya
domain Archaea

16

What kingdoms are included in domain Eukarya?

Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

17

Biology

scientific study of life

18

Levels of organization in ascending order

Atoms
Molecules
Organelles
Cell
Tissues
Organ
Organ systems
Organisms
Populations
Communities
Ecosystems
Biosphere

19

Communities

entire array of organism inhabiting a particular ecosystem

20

Populations

all individuals of a species living within the bounds of specified area

21

Organisms

individual living things

22

Organ systems

various organ constitutes to from organ system

23

Organ

carries particular function in the body

24

Tissues

group of similar cells

25

Cells

fundamental unit of structure and function

26

Organelles

various functional components that make up the cell

27

Molecule

chemical structure consisting of two or more atoms

28

Levels of classification is descending order

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

29

What are Darwin's two points?

- species showed evidence of "descent with modification" from common ancestors
- natural selection is the mechanism behind "descent with modification"

30

What are Darwin's observations?

- individuals in a population have traits that vary
- many of these traits are heritable
- more offspring are produced that survive
- competition is inevitable
- species generally suit their environment

31

What are Darwin's inferences?

- individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce
- over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits

32

What are two main types of scientific inquiry?

discovery science (inductive) and hypothesis-based science(deductive)

33

Discovery science

describes natural structures and processes

34

Data

recorded observations or items of information

35

Name the two categories of data

Qualitative and Quantitative

36

Qualitative data

descriptions rather than measurements

37

Quantitative data

recorded measurements

38

Inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances

39

Hypothesis

a tentative answer to a well-framed question

40

Deductive reasoning

uses general premises to make specific predictions

41

Why do we need controlled experiments?

to cancel the effects of unwanted variables

42

Limitations of Science

-observations and experimental results must be repeatable
- cannot support or falsify supernatural explanations

43

What is a theory

- broader in scope than a hypothesis
- general, can lead to new testable hypotheses
- supported by large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis

44

What are models?

representations of natural phenomena

45

Diagrams, 3D objects, Computer programs, mathematical equations are examples of?

Models

46

How do scientists communicate with each other?

seminars, publications, and websites

47

Substance consisting of two or more elements in fixed ratio is called

compound

48

How many electrons are there in valence shell of oxygen

six

49

Atomic number

number of protons in the nucleus

50

Goiter is caused by the deficiency of which trace element?

Iodine

51

Covalent bond

formed by sharing pairs of valence electrons

52

Sodium chloride is formed by which bond?

Ionic bond

53

Chemical equilibrium

the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal

54

Give an example of polar molecule

Water, Methane etc..

55

Water molecules are hold together by which type of bond?

Hydrogen bond

56

An oxygen molecule is formed by non-polar covalent bond. True or False

True

57

Element

a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reaction

58

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

59

Name the four essential elements that constitute 96% of living matter

hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen

60

Name the elements that constitute 4% of living matter

calcium, phosphorous, potassium, and sulfur

61

Name the subatomic particles that an atom is composed of

proton, neutron, and electron

62

Trace elements

elements required in minute quantities

63

Isotopes

two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons

64

Mass number

number of protons + number of neutrons

65

Radioactive isotopes

decay spontaneously giving of particles and energy

66

Applications of radioactive isotopes

dating fossils
tracing atoms through metabolic processes
diagnosing medical disorders

67

Valence electrons

electrons in the outer most shell of an atom

68

Electron shell

electron's state of potential energy

69

Energy

capacity to cause change

70

Potential energy

the energy that matter has because of its location or structure

71

Orbital

3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time

72

Molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

73

Structural formula

H-H

74

Molecular formula

H2

75

Nonpolar covalent bond

equal sharing of electrons

76

Polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of electrons

77

Ionic bond

transfer of electrons

78

Anions

ions with a negative charge

79

Cations

ions with a positive charge

80

Electronegativity

atom's attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond

81

Chemical reactions

making and breaking of chemical bonds

82

Reactants

starting molecules of a chemical reaction

83

Products

final molecules of a chemical reaction

84

Hydrogen bonds

forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom

85
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Which of the following is the electron distribution diagram of Neon (Atomic #10)

card image
86

Four properties of water

cohesive behavior
ability to moderate temperature
expansion upon freezing
versatility as a solvent

87

Cohesion

hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together

88

Adhesion

attraction between different substances

89

Moderation of temperature

Heat is absorbed
Heat is released
Evaporating cooling

90

Evaporating cooling

as liquid evaporates its remaining surface cools

91

Name the property that helps transport of water against gravity in plants

cohesion

92

A solution in which water is a solvent is called

aqueous solution

93

A mixture that is homogeneous mixture of substances

solution

94

Dissolving agent of the solution

solvent

95

Substance that is dissolved

solute

96

Type of substance that does not have an affinity for water are called?

Hydrophobic

97

Type of substance that does have an affinity for water are called?

Hydrophilic

98

Stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid

colloid

99

A substance that reduces H+ ion concentration

Base

100

pH for neutral solution

pH 7

101

A substance which has less OH- conc and more H+ conc is ?

acid

102

Substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution

Buffers

103

HCl, NaOH are examples of

Buffers

104

Between pH 10 and pH 2, which one has more OH- ions concentration

pH 10

105

Acid precipitation

refers to rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6

106

What makes large, complex molecules possible?

tetravalence

107

Frequent partners of carbon

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

108
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In figure above, in which way do the carbon skeleton differ between the two organic compounds?

Length

109
card image

In figure above, in which way do the carbon skeleton differ between the two organic compounds?

Branching

110
card image

In figure above, in which way do the carbon skeleton differ between the two organic compounds?

Double bonds

111
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In figure above, in which way do the carbon skeleton differ between the two organic compounds?

Rings

112

Isomers

compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures

113
card image

The above structure is an example of what type of isomer?

Structural isomers

114
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The above structure is an example of what type of isomer?

Geometric isomers

115
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The above structure is an example of what type of isomer?

Enantiomers

116

Name the seven functional groups discussed in class

Hydroxyl
Carbonyl
Carboxyl
Amino
Sulfhydryl
Phosphate
Methyl

117
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Hydroxyl

118
card image

Carbonyl

119
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Carboxyl

120
card image

Amino

121
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Sulfhydryl

122
card image

Phosphate

123
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Methyl

124

Carboxylic group is found in what type of chemical compound?

acid

125

Macromolecules

large molecules composed of thousands of monomers

126

Polymer

long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks

127

Monomers

the small building block molecules

128

Condensation reaction

two monomers bonding (loss of water molecule)

129

Hydrolysis

polymers are broken down into monomers (addition of water)

130

Name the subgroups of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide

131

Name the types of monosaccharide

ketoses
aldoses

132

Is glucose aldose or ketose

aldose

133

Is fructose aldose or ketose

ketose

134

Name the different types of polysaccharides

storage polysaccharides
structural polysaccharides

135

Carbohydrates are formed by what kind of bonds?

glycosidic linkage

136

Function of carbohydrates

energy source

137

Name the subgroups of lipids

fats
phospholipids
steroids

138

Lipids are formed by what kind of bonds?

ester linkages

139

Building blocks of lipids

glycerol + fatty acids

140

Building blocks of phospholipids

phosphate group + fatty acids

141

Building blocks of steroids

four fused carbon rings

142

Functions of lipids

long term energy storage
membranes
insulation
sex hormones

143

Saturated fats

fatty acids containing no double bonds

144

Unsaturated fats

fatty acids containing one or more double bonds

145

Where are phospholipids found?

cell membranes

146

Cholesterol

a steroid in animal cell membrane

147

What are subgroups of proteins?

Enzymatic
Structural
Storage
Transport
Hormonal
Receptor
Contractile and motor
Defenisve

148

Proteins are formed by which bonds?

peptide bonds

149

What are building blocks of proteins?

amino acids

150

Transthyretin is an example of?

protein

151

What are amino acids

organic molecules with carboxyl, and amino groups

152

Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine are examples of?

Nonpolar amino acids

153

Serine, Threonine, Cysteine, Tyrosine, Asparagine, Glutamine are examples of?

Polar amino acids

154

Four levels of protein structure

primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary

155

Primary structure

the sequence of amino acids in a protein

156

Secondary structure

result from hydrogen bond between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone

157

α helix and β pleated sheet are examples of?

secondary structure

158

Tertiary structure

determined by interactions between R groups

159

Disulfide bridges

reinforce the protein structure

160

Quaternary structure

two or more polypeptide chains form one macromolecules

161

Hemoglobin results from which level of protein structure?

quaternary protein structure

162

Chitin is an example of?

structural polysaccharide

163

Polypeptides

polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids

164

Name the subgroups of nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

165

Nucleic acids are formed by which kind of bonds

hydrogen bonds

166

What are building blocks for nucleic acids

Nucleotide

167

What is nucleotide made up of

Phosphate + pentose sugar + nitrogenous base

168

What is nucleoside

pentose sugar + nitrogenous base

169

What are functions of nucleic acids?

genetic material

170

Name all nitrogenous bases

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (DNA), Uracil (RNA)

171

Which bases are pyrimidines?

Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil

172

Which bases are purines?

Adenine and Guanine

173

Adenine pairs with? (DNA)

Thymine

174

Guanine pairs with?

Cytosine

175

Adenine pairs with? (RNA)

Uracil

176

How do RNA and DNA differ

RNA has one more oxygen then DNA in the pentose sugar