Microbiology Chapter 24 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

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Microbiology
Chapter 24
Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
updated 6 years ago by cjsaslo
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1

____________ are the most common type of infection

Infections of the upper respiratory system

2

True or False
Pathogens that enter the respiratory system can infect other parts of the body.

True

3

The upper respiratory system consists of ______________

the nose, pharynx, and associated structures, such as the
middle ear and auditory tubes.

4

True or False
Coarse hairs in the nose filter large particles from air entering the respiratory tract

True

5

___________ of the nose and throat trap airborne particles and remove them from
the body.

The ciliated mucous membranes

6

____________ provide immunity to certain infections

. Lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids

7

The lower respiratory system consists of the ___________________

larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and alveoli.

8

Microbes in the lungs can be phagocytized by

alveolar macrophages

9

Respiratory mucus contains _____ antibodies

IgA

10

The lower respiratory system is usually sterile because of the action of the ___________

ciliary escalator

11

Specific areas of the upper respiratory system can become infected to produce

pharyngitis, laryngitis,
tonsillitis, sinusitis, and epiglottitis.

12

True or False
Most respiratory tract infections are self-limiting

True

13

__________________________ can cause epiglottitis

H. influenza type b

14

Streptococcal Pharyngitis is caused by

group A beta-hemolytic streptococci

15

group A beta-hemolytic streptococci consists of

Streptococcus
pyogenes.

16

Symptoms of Streptococcal Pharyngitis (Strep Throat) are:

inflammation of the mucous membrane
fever
tonsillitis
otitis media

17

Rapid diagnosis of Strept Throat is made by _______________

enzyme immunoassays

18

True or False
Rapid Strept Tests are sensitive and specific

False
They are not very sensitive or specific

19

True or False
Negative tests must be confirmed by culture or another type of test.

True

20

True or False.
Immunity to streptococcal infections is type-specific

True

21

Strep throat, if left untreated results in ___________

Scarlet Fever

22

___________ produces erythrogenic toxin when lysogenized by a phage

S. pyogenes

23

Symptoms of Scarlet Fever include:

red rash
high fever
red, enlarged tongue

24

Diphtheria is caused by exotoxin-producing _________

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

25

Diptheria exotoxin is produced when the bacteria are _______________

lysogenized by a phage

26

True or False
With Diptheria A membrane, containing fibrin and dead human and bacterial cells, forms in the throat and can block the passage of air.

True

27

The diptheria exotoxin inhibits ____________, and heart, kidney, or nerve damage may result

protein synthesis

28

Routine immunization in the United States includes diphtheria toxoid in the ___________

DTaP vaccine

29

Slow-healing skin ulcerations are characteristic of _________________

cutaneous diphtheria

30

Bacterial causes of Otitis Media include

Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella
catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus.

31

Any one of approximately 200 different viruses can cause the common cold

rhinoviruses cause about
50% of all colds.

32

Symptoms of the Common Cold include

sneezing, nasal secretions, and congestion

33

Rhinoviruses grow best

slightly below body temperature

34

True or False
Antibodies are produced against the specific viruses.

True

35

True or False
Many of the same microorganisms that infect the upper respiratory system also infect the lower respiratory
system

True

36

Diseases of the lower respiratory system include

bronchitis and pneumonia.

37

Pertussis is caused by

Bordetella pertussis

38

The initial stage of pertussis resembles a cold and is called the _____________

catarrhal stage

39

During Pertussis (Whooping Cough) The accumulation of mucus in the trachea and bronchi causes deep coughs characteristic of the ___________

paroxysmal
(second) stage

40

The third stage of pertussis is the ________ stage and can last for months

convalescence

41

True or false
Regular immunization for children has decreased the incidence of pertussis

True

42

Tuberculosis is caused by ________________

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

43

In Tuberculosis what accounts for the bacterium’s acid-fast characteristic as well as its resistance to drying and disinfectants?

Large amounts of lipids in the cell wall

44

M. tuberculosis may be ingested by _________________

alveolar macrophages

45

True or False
if M. tuberculosis is not killed, the bacteria reproduce in the macrophages.

True

46

Lesions formed by M. tuberculosis are called ________

tubercles

47

During Tuberculosis, dead macrophages and bacteria form the caseous lesion that might calcify and appear in an X-ray image as a ___________

Ghon’s complex

48

____________________ results in a tuberculous cavity in which M. tuberculosis can grow.

Liquefaction of the caseous lesion

49

New foci of infection can develop when a caseous lesion ruptures and releases bacteria into blood
or lymph vessels; this is called ____________.

miliary tuberculosis.

50

Miliary tuberculosis is characterized by _______________________________

weight loss, coughing, and loss of vigor

51

True or False
A positive tuberculin skin test can indicate either an active case of TB, prior infection, or vaccination
and immunity to the disease

True

52

_____________ causes bovine tuberculosis and can be transmitted to humans by unpasteurized
milk.

Mycobacterium bovis

53

M. bovis infections usually affect the __________________________________

bones or lymphatic system

54

True or False
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and can be transmitted to humans by unpasteurized
milk.

True

55

Typical community-acquired pneumonia is caused by

S. pneumoniae

56

Atypical pneumonias are caused by other microorganisms. Nosocomial pneumonia’s often caused by

gram negative rods.

57

Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by __________________

encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.

58

Syptoms are Pneumococcal Pneumonia are

fever, breathing difficulty, chest pain, and rust-colored sputum.

59

A vaccine of pneumococcal pneumonia consists of purified capsular material from ___________________________

23 serotypes of S. pneumoniae

60

Alcoholism, poor nutrition, cancer, and diabetes are predisposing factors for _______________________.

H. influenzae pneumonia

61

H. influenzae is a gram ______ _________

gram-negative coccobacillus

62

____________ causes mycoplasmal pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

63

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia is an ____________ disease

endemic

64

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Often occurs in adolescents and young adults; may be referred to as __________________.

Walking pneumonia

65

Legionellosis is caused by ____________________

Legionella pneumophila

66

Legionellosis is an aerobic gram _______

negative

67

Legionaries disease can grow in

water, such as air-conditioning cooling towers, and then be disseminated in the air.

68

Legionella pneumonia :
A) does not appear to be transmitted from person to person
B) does appear to be transmitted from person to person

A) does not appear to be transmitted from person to person

69

Commercial bird handlers are most susceptible to this disease.

Psittacosis (Ornithosis)

70

Psittacosis is caused by

Chlamydophila psittaci

71

Chlamydophila psittaci is transmitted by

contact with contaminated droppings and exudates of fowl.

72

How does Chlamydophila psittaci {Psittacosis (ornithosis)} bacteria survive outside a host

Elementary bodies

73

Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes pneumonia

pneumonia

74

True or False
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is transmitted from person to person.

True

75

________ causes Q fever

Coxiella burnetii

76

Q Fever is usually transmitted to humans through

unpasteurized milk or inhalation of aerosols
in dairy barns

77

_____ is the most common cause of pneumonia in infants

RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)

78

Influenza is caused by ________ and is characterized by chills, fever, headache, and general muscular
aches.

Influenza virus

79

_________ and __________ spikes project from the outer lipid bilayer of the virus.

Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) spikes

80

Viral strains are identified by ___________

antigenic differences in the HA and NA spikes

81

Viral strains are divided by antigenic differences in their __________

protein coats (A, B, and C).

82

Viral isolates are identified by hemagglutination-inhibition tests and immunofluorescence testing
with _________________

monoclonal antibodies

83

________________ alter the antigenic nature of the HA and NA spikes

Antigenic shifts

84

Minor antigenic changes are caused by ________________.

antigenic drift

85

Deaths during an influenza epidemic are usually from

secondary bacterial infections

86

________________ are available for older adults and other high-risk groups

Multivalent vaccines

87

____________ and _____________ are effective prophylactic and curative drugs against influenza A virus

Amantadine and rimantadine

88

True or False
Fungal spores are easily inhaled; they may germinate in the lower respiratory tract.

True

89

True or False
The incidence of fungal diseases has been decreasing in recent years

False. It has been increasing

90

______________ causes Histoplasmosis

Histoplasma capsulatum

91

what is histoplasmosis

causes a subclinical respiratory infection that only occasionally progresses to a severe, generalized disease.

92

how do you diagnoses Histoplasmosis

Isolating or identifying the fungus in tissue

93

___________________________________ can result in coccidioidomycosis

Inhaling the airborne arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis

94

If you have coccidioidomycosis when there are predisposing factors such as fatigue and poor nutrition, a progressive disease resembling ___________ can result.

tuberculosis

95

During Pneumocystis Pneumonia, _______________is found in healthy human lungs

Pneumocystis jirovecii

96

True or False
P. jirovecii causes disease in immunosuppressed patients.

True

97

_____________ is the causative agent of blastomycosis

Blastomyces dermatitidis

98

Blastomycosis infection begins in the _______ and can spread to cause extensive abscesses

lungs

99

Histoplasmis, Coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis Pneumonia, Blastomycosis can be treated with ___________

amphotericin B