Campbell Biology Chapter 31 Key Terms

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 31
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1

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).

2

Ascocarp

The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete).

3

Ascomycete

Member of the fungal phylum Ascomycota, commonly called sac fungus. The name comes from the saclike structure in which the spores develop.

4

Basidiocarp

Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus.

5

Basidiomycete

Member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium.

6

Basidium

A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).

7

Chitin

A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.

8

Deuteromycetes

Traditional classification for a fungus with no known sexual stage.

9

Dikaryotic

Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.

10

Ectomycorrhizal Fungus

A symbiotic fungus that forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of plant roots and also grows into extracellular spaces of the root cortex.

11

Endophyte

A fungus that lives inside a leaf or other plant part without causing harm to the plant.

12

Glomeromycete

Member of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, characterized by a distinct branching form of mycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae.

13

Haustorium

In certain symbiotic fungi, a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.

14

Heterokaryon

A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell.

15

Hypha

One of many connected filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus.

16

Karyogamy

In fungi, the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, preceded by plasmogamy.

17

Lichen

The mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacterium.

18

Mycorrhiza

A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.

19

Nucleariid

Member of a group of unicellular, amoeboid protists that are more closely related to fungi than they are to other protists.

20

Opisthokont

Member of the diverse clade Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.

21

Pheromone

In animals and fungi, a small molecule released into the environment that functions in communication between members of the same species. In animals, it acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior.

22

Septum

One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.

23

Soredium

In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded algae.

24

Yeasts

Single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by binary fission or by the pinching of small buds off a parent cell. Some species exhibit cell fusion between different mating types.

25

Zoospores

Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.

26

Zygomycetes

Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.

27

zygosporangium

In zygomycete fungi, a sturdy multinucleate structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur.