What are the two layers that make up the skin?
The epidermis is made up of what type of tissue?
The dermis is made up of what type of tissue?
The hypodermis is also called?
What anchors the skin to underlying structures (muscles) and is mostly made up of adipose tissue?
Hypodermis (superficial fascia)
What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?
What is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
What are the cell types located in the epidermis?
keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic and tactile
Dendritic cells are also called?
Tactile cells are also called?
Keratinocyets are tightly connected by what?
Which types of cells are macrophages that are key activators of the immune system?
Which cells are sensory touch receptors?
Which layer of the epidermis consists of a single row of stem cells?
Which layer, also known as the prickly layer, contains prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes, and has abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells?
Which layer has flattened cells and is where keratinization begins, and has water-resistant glycolipids to slow water loss?
Which layer, also known as the clear layer, only exists in thick skin?
Which layer, also known as the horny layer, consists of 20-30 rows of dead, flat, anucleate keratinized membranous sacs, that protect from abrasion and penetration?
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death (in the DNA)
What cells are located in the dermis?
Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and white blood cells
What are the two layers of the dermis?
What are dermal papillae?
Superficial peg-like projections
What are the touch receptors located in the dermal papillae?
What creates fingerprints and enhance gripping ability?
Which layer of the dermis contains dense fibrous connective tissue, elastic fibers for stretch-recoil properties, and collagen fibers?
What are the collagen fibers parallel to the skin surface that are important to surgeons?
What are the dermal folds at or near joints?
What are silvery-white scars otherwise known as stretch marks called?
Where are striae located?
What are fluid filled pockets that separate the epidermal and dermal layers?
What are the pigments that contribute to skin color?
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
Sunspots, also known as tinea versicolor, are what?
Melanin is produced where?
Carotene accumulates where?
stratum corneum and hypodermis
Bronzing is due to inadequate hormones, such as in what disease?
What are the appendages of the skin?
hair, hair follicles, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands
what is the smooth muscle attached to the follicle that is responsible for goose bumps?
What is the pale, fine body hair of children and adult females?
What is the coarse, long hair of eyebrows and scalp?
Sweat glands are also known as ?
What are the main types of sweat glands?
Which type of sweat glands also produce protein?
Which is the most abundant sweat gland, located in palms, soles and forehead?
Which glands function in thermoregulation?
which glands are located in axillary and anogenital areas?
which gland produces sweat, fatty substances and proteins?
which gland has ducts that empty into pores?
which glands have sweat that empties into hair follicles?
which type of glands are modified apocrine glands that line the external ear canal and secrete cerumen (ear wax)?
which type of glands are modified apocrine glands that secrete milk?
Which type of skin cancer is most commom, stratum basale cells proliferate and invade dermis and hypodermis
basal cell carcinoma
what is the second most common form of skin cancer that involves keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum, metastacizes and is scaly, reddened papule on scalp, ears, lower lip and hands?
squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most dangerous type of cancer?
Which degree of burn causes only epidermal damage ?
which degree of burn causes epidermal and upper dermal damage and blisters appear?
which degree of burn damages the entire thickness of the skin and usually requires skin grafting?
What is vernix caseosa?
sebaceous gland secretion, protects skin of fetus