Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 3 - Cells Flashcards


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1

The structural and functional unit of life

Cell

2

What are the common structures of all cells?

Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus

3

The control center of the cell

Nucleus

4

This is a lipid bilayer that separates intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid

Plasma membrane

5

True or False: Interstitial fluid is extracellular fluid that surrounds cells

True.

6

The plasma membrane is made up of what?

Phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol

7

The phosphate heads of the plasma membrane are ________ and _________.

Polar, hydrophilic

8

The fatty acid tails of the plasma membrane are ________ and ________.

Nonpolar, hydrophobic

9

The _________ of the plasma membrane increases stability.

Cholesterol

10

What are the types of proteins in the plasma membranes?

Integral and peripheral

11

Integral proteins are _________, while peripheral proteins are ________.

Imbedded, free floating

12

These types of proteins in the plasma membrane function as transport proteins (channels and carriers), enzymes, or receptors

Integral proteins

13

These types of proteins in the plasma membrane function as enzymes, motor proteins for shape change during cell division and muscle contraction; cell-to-cell connections

Peripheral proteins

14

List the functions of plasma membrane proteins

Transport, receptors for signal transduction, attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, enzyme activity, intercellular joining, and cell-to-cell recognition

15

This makes up 20% of the outer membrane surface

Lipid rafts

16

Lipid rafts contain:

Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol

17

What is the "sugar covering" at the cell surface?

Glycolax

18

This is what allows the immune system to recognize self from non-self, but cancerous cells change it continuously

Glycolax

19

Cell junctions can be ______ (like blood cells and sperm cells), or ______.

Free, bound into communities

20

What are the ways that cells are bound in communities?

Tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions.

21

In what type of junction do adjacent proteins fuse to form an impermeable junction encircling the cell?

Tight junctions

22

What type of junction has rivets or spot-welds that anchor cells together at plaques (thickenings on the plasma membrane)?

Desmosomes

23

In what type of junction to transmembrane proteins form pores (connexons) that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell?

Gap junctions

24

Where might you find gap junctions?

For spread of ions, simple sugars, and other small molecules between cardiac or smooth muscle cells

25

This surrounds the cell and contains amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamins, hormones, salts, waste product and water

Interstitial fluid

26

Plasma membranes are _______ _________.

Selectively permeable

27

What are the ways in which substances cross the plasma membrane?

Passive processes and active processes

28

In this type of process, no ATP is required and substances move down the concentration gradient.

Passive

29

In this type of process, ATP is required and it occurs only in living cell membranes

Active

30

What are the types of passive transport?

Diffusion, filtration

31

What are the types of diffusion?

Simple, carrier and channel-mediated, and osmosis

32

This type of passive transport usually occurs across capillary walls

Filtration

33

During diffusion, collisions cause molecules to move down or with their ________ __________.

Concentration gradient

34

The speed of diffusion is influenced by __________ and ___________

Molecule size and temperature.

35

Molecules will passively diffuse through the membrane if they are _______ soluble.

Lipid

36

Molecules will passively diffuse through the membrane if they are small enough or assisted by _________ __________.

Carrier molecules

37

Which vitamins are water soluble?

Vitamins B and C

38

Which vitamins are fat soluble

All other vitamins besides B and C

39

Which lipophobic molecules require facilitated diffusion?

Glucose, amino acids, and ions

40

During this type of facilitated diffusion, integral proteins assist and the binding of substrate causes shape change and then passage across the membrane.

Carrier-mediated diffusion

41

During this type of facilitated diffusion, aqueous channels are formed by transmembrane proteins and selectively transport ions or water.

Channel-mediated diffusion

42

These types of channels are always open.

Leaky

43

These types of channels are controlled by chemical or electrical signals

Gated

44

This type of passive process involves the movement of solvent across a selectively permeable membrane

Osmosis

45

What is the measure of the total concentration of solute particles?

Osmolarity

46

What is the back pressure of water on the membrane?

Hydrostatic pressure

47

What is the tendency of water to move into cell by osmosis?

Osmotic pressure

48

What is the ability of a solution to alter the cell's water volume?

Tonicity

49

When a solution has the same amount of non-penetrating solute concentration as the cytosol (same amount inside and outside), it is called?

Isotonic

50

When the solution has a higher non-penetrating solute concentration than cytosol (more solute outside), it is?

Hypertonic

51

When the solution has a lower non-penetrating solute concentration than cytosol (more inside than out), it is ?

Hypotonic

52

If there is more solute in the cell than outside the cell, water will move _______ the cell.

Into

53

If there is more solute outside the cell than in the cell, water will move _______ the cell

Out of