Chapter 4 Part 2: Connective, Muscle, Nervous Tissue
What are the classes of connective tissue?
Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood
What are the characteristics of connective tissue that make it different from other primary tissues?
It has mesenchyme as the common tissue of origin, has varying degrees of vascularity, and has extracellular mix
What are the structural elements of connective tissue?
Ground substance, fibers and cells.
What are the components of ground substance?
Interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins ("glue"), and proteoglycans
What are the types of fibers that provide support to connective tissue?
Collagen, elastic, and reticular
True or False: "blast" cells are the mature forms of cells
True or False: Fibroblasts are located in connective tissue proper.
What types of cells are in connective tissue?
Fat cells, white blood cells, mast cells, macrophages.
What is the role of mast cells?
To initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect.
What is the role of macrophages?
To "eat" dead cells
What are the two subclasses of connective tissue proper?
Loose connective tissues and dense (or fibrous) connective tissues.
What are the types of loose connective tissues?
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular.
What are the types of dense connective tissue?
Dense regular, Dense irregular, Elastic
Which type of connective tissue is associate with edema?
Brown fat uses lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream, not to produce ______.
The cells in adipose tissue are called ________.
The cells in reticular connective tissue is called _________.
Reticular connective tissue is located where?
Lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.
Dense regular connective tissue is located where?
Tendons and ligaments.
Dense irregular connective tissue is located where?
The dermis, fibrous joint capsules, and fibrous coverings of some organs.
Elastic connective tissue is located where?
Ligaments (connecting adjacent vertebrae), within the walls of bronchial tubes
Cartilage consists of what types of cells?
Chondroblasts and chondrocytes
True or False: Cartilage is avascular.
What are the types of cartilage?
Hyaline, elastic, and fibro-
Where is hyaline cartilage located?
Ends of long bones, in joint cavities
Where is elastic cartilage located?
Where is fibrocartilage located?
Intervertebral discs, discs of knee joint
Bone is also known as __________.
Bone is made up of more ________ than _________.
True or False: Bone is richly vascularized
__________ is the only fluid tissue.
What are the types of muscular tissue?
Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Which type(s) of muscular tissue are involuntary?
Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system. It is composed of __________.
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
__________ are supporting cells in nerve tissue that support, insulate, and protect neurons.
Covering and lining membranes are composed of how many tissue types?
At least two.
What are the types of covering and lining membranes?
Cutaneous, mucous, serous
Cutaneous membrane is also known as __________.
In the cutaneous membrane, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (_______), is attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (___________).
Mucosa indicates __________, not cell _________.
In mucous membranes, an epithelial sheet lies over a layer of connective tissue called ___________.
Mucus membranes line ______ ________ that are _______ to the exterior
Body cavities, open.
Serous membranes are found in __________ ________ body cavities.
In serous membranes, a simple squamous epithelium, also known as _________, rests on a thin layer of ___________ connective tissue.
Serous membranes are located where?
Pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum
Tissue repair occurs in these major ways.
During this type of tissue repair, the same type of tissue replaces the destroyed tissue, and the original function is restored.
In this type of tissue repair, connective tissue replaces the destroyed tissue, and the original function is lost.
What is the first step in tissue repair?
Inflammation, clotting occurs
What is the second step of tissue repair?
Organization which restores blood supply, blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue, fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to bridge the gap
What is the third step of tissue repair?
Regeneration and fibrosis, the scab detaches, epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue, results in fully regenerated epithelium with underling scar tissue.
What types of tissues regenerate very well?
Epithelial, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, blood-forming tissue.
What types of tissues have moderate regenerating capacity?
Smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue.
What types of tissues have virtually no functional regenerative capacity?
Cardiac muscle, nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord
What are the primary germ layers?
Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
From what primary germ layer does nerve tissue arise?
From what primary germ layer does muscle tissue and connective tissues arise?
From what primary germ layer does epithelial tissues arise?
All three germ layers.