The American Promise Volume 1 Chapter 1 thru 5

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Ancient Americans, Columbus, Native Americans, Puritans, Quakers, Enlightenment, Encomienda, Ecological Revolution.
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1

League of Five Nations?

Form by the Iroquoian Tribes for the purpose of war and diplomacy.

2

The League of Five Nations consisted of which Native American Groups?

Seneca, Onondaga, Mohawk, Oneida and Cayuga

3

Paleo Indians

Traveled through ice free passageway in pursuit of game. They traveled by boats and hunted marine life. The migrated to the top of South America an everywhere else in the Western hemisphere.

4

How did the Paleo Indians hunt and what did they hunt?

They hunted with spearheads called Clovis point. They were nomads who hunted bison and mammoths.

5

Archaic Indians

Migrated from place to place to harvest plants and hunt animals. They were nomads that returned to the river valley or fertile meadow year after year

6

Mississippi Culture

They were a mound building culture. Their ritual derived from Mexican cultural expressions that were brought north by traders and migrants.

7

Iroquoian Indians

They were Easter woodland people. They inhabited Pennsylvania, New York Carolinas and Georgia. They built permanent settlements consisting of several bark covered long houses up to 100 feet long. The housed five to ten families in one structure.

8

Anasazi Culture

Built pithouses on mesa tops. They moved to cliff dwellings in Mesa Verde and Colorado

9

Mexica

Practiced human sacrifices. They took the hearts out of their victims to offer to their Gods. They were also called Aztecs.

10

Beringia

A land bridge that ancient Americans traveled from Siberia through the Beringia to America. Falling sea level exposed a land bridge connecting Asia, Siberia and American Alaska.

11

1490's

Old world and New World

12

Spain

1. God, Glory, and Gold
2. All Spanish colonies are under royal control.
3. Forced Catholicism on natives.
4. Conquistadors searched for land, silver and gold.

13

France

1. Catholic and Protestant
2. Interested in fur trade
3. French had best relationship with natives

14

England

1. God, Gold, and Land

2. Corporate - Virginia was a corporate colony - people invested money.

3. Proprietary - The king gave a license to start a colony.

4. Catholics and Protestants

15

Old World - Slave trading

Africans, Europeans, and Asians taken by force.(far more Africans then Europeans forced to new world)

16

Old World- Cuisine

Brought ideas and culture such as music, religion and cuisine. (deep south cooking from West Africa)

17

Old World - Animals

Brought cows, pigs and horses

18

Old World - Plants

Onion, wheat, hemp and citrus

19

Old World - Diseases

Brought diseases such as Smallpox, Cholera, Measles. It was deadly to the Native American population.

20

New World - What Revolution began?

The Ecological Revolution - Turkey

21

New World was introduced to what?

Indians, Music, Cuisine, Learned to smoke tobacco from natives

22

New World - crops

Potatoes,corn,tomatoes and tobacco

23

New World - Disease

Syphilis

24

Middle Passage

1. A slave route across the atlantic.

2. Africans who were captured from war, or kidnapped were sold in slavery by other Africans.

3. Transferring of slaves from Africa to the New World

4. Slaves were packed 200 to 300 on one ship to be sold to colonial slave merchants or southern planter.

5. Average death was 15% sometimes half died from disease, smallpox, dysentery and acute dehydration from shortage of drinking water, vomiting and diarrhea.

25

The Columbian Exchange 1497

1. One of the most important events that changed history everywhere. A transatlantic trade of people, goods and ideas. Life changes for everyone and has continued to present day.

26

King Henry VII of England sent?

John Cabot to look for a Northwest Passage.

27

Sea Bridge that spanned the Atlantic

1. Was discovered by Columbus when arrived at the Caribbean.

2. Connected Eastern And Western hemisphere creating an aquatic highway

3. Connecting America to Europe.

4. The Columbian Exchange

28

Ecological Revolution

Goes on for centuries. Has not ended in theory.

29

Spanish Conquistadors

Genocide of the Arawak Indians. 3.8 mil killed.

30

Popay

1680

1. Native leader who organized the Pueblo Revolt.

2. Ordered followers to break up and burn all religious images.

3. Natives defecated on relics

4. 2/3 of Spaniards and missionaries were killed.

5. Remaining Spaniards were driven out of New Mexico into present day El Paso.

31

Virginia Company

1. Granted six million acres in North America by King James I in 1606 in hopes of colonization.

2. Never earned a penny for investors and failed.

32

Virginia Colony Differences

1. Demographics.
2. Single men.
3. Very few woman.
4. Settlements.
5. Spread out plantations.
6. Loose Religion - Traveling minister.
7. Health conditions poor.
8. Malaria from African slaves.
9. Water was salty, so they drank beer.
10. Labor - tobacco plantation, indentured servants.

33

Seasonal Period In Virginia

One third of colonist died the first year due to malaria.

34

Massachusetts Colony Differences

1. Family Units
2. Adjacent villages
3. Strict religious control
4. Colder climate - less disease transmission
5. Family provided labor

35

Bacons Rebellion

1670 s - Uprising when Bacon led an army of indentured servants and African Slaves. The dispute was over Virginia Indian policy.

As a result it led to 2 things.

1. Poor white men get vote privilege
2. Massive increase in African Slaves.

36

Treaty of Tordisillas

1. Was created to protect land claims by the Portuguese and Spanish Monarchs in 1494.

2. It drew an imaginary line eleven hundred miles west of the Canary Islands.

3. Land discovered West belong to Spain

4. Land to East was claimed by Portugal (African & East Indian trading Empire)

37

Encomienda

1. Empowered conquistadors to rule the Indians and the Land in and around their towns.

2. Means - The man who owned the town.

38

House of Burgesses 1619

In Virginia. The first form of representative of government in an English colony.

39

Powhatan

1. Supreme Chief of 14 thousand Algonquin Indians who inhabited the coastal plain of Virginia.

2. Father of Pocahontas

3. Lead John Smith to stones to have his brains beat out.

40

Pocahontas

1. Saved John Smith from being killed by her father Powhatan by laying her head on his and wrapping her arms around him.

Smith wrote,"Hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine ... and so prevailed her father that I was safely conducted back to Jamestown.

41

Mayflower Compact

1670’s - Massachusetts
The first form of demographic non English colony.

42

South Colonies

1. Single men
2. Spread apart plantations
3. Loose religion
4. Tropical climate
5. Malaria disease
6. Slave labor

43

North Colonies

1. Family units
2. Adjacent villages
3. Strict church
4. Cold climate landscapes
5. Better water
6. Family units worke

44

North and South Colonies. What was the outcome?

1. Common American Identity
2. Lessening of defence
3. Also separated by African and Whites

45

North and South Colonies also endured?

1. FORCED RELIGION usually catholicism
2. Tensions over land
3. Communication between groups
4. King Philip's War 1676-1677
5. Pequot War 1630’s
6. Pan Indianism (united indians)

46

King Philip's War

1676-1677

1. War between New Zealand.

2. Native American groups & settlers fought for land.

3. Bloodiest war in American History. (proportionately)

4. Pan Indianism - Combined Indian efforts against settlers.

5. Rising of Militia (minutemen)

6. End of Indian power in New England

7. Left New England with a large war debt

8. Hatred began between Indians and English.

9. Twelve towns were destroyed and damaged by Native American warriors.

10. Economy was ruined and the population decimated.

11. Lost 1/10 of men to military service.

47

Pequot War

1630’s

48

Pan Indianism

United indians

49

Wampanoags

1. Plymouth was their territory.

2. Majority died unlike the Pueblo Revolt

3. Chief was Massasoit.

4. Taught pilgrims how to harvest enough food for winter for survival.

5. Celebrated in the fall with the feast of Thanksgiving.

6. When pilgrims encroached on their land, they paid them for it.

50

Land 1600 s

Royal proprietary landowners were the only ones that could have land.

51

John Peter Zenger

1730's

1. Printer/Editor in New York
2. Prints stories about corrupt gov. William Crosby
3. Was a significant time in history
4. President of Freedom of the press
5. Jury Nullification

52

The Great Awakening

1730’s - 1740’s promoted by Jonathan Edwards

1. Protestant religion movement that created greater protestant diversity.

2. Ended state sponsored churches.

3. Lessened Deference. (poor required to yield to rich)

4. Established Primary School and early education. (for males)

5. Created common American Identity.

6. Leading to Revolution

53

Pueblo Revolt

1680 s

1. Most successful Indian rebellion in American History

2. Ended Encomienda

3. No forced Catholicism

4. Banished everything spanish

5. Except agriculture (defecated on holy relics

6. Lead by Popay

7. Pueblo Indians

54

Columbus took?

Land, Labor and Wealth

(Columbus did not invent slavery)

55

Transatlantic Slave Trade

1. First victims were Indians (20,000).
2. Brought to the New World for show.
3. A form of status to show of your Indian.
4. Almost all died of disease and heartbreak.

56

Arawak Indians

1492 -
1. 3.8 mil Arawaks.
2. Were the first people to interact with Columbus. 3. 62 years later - they were all gone. (Genocide) 4 Killed by spaniards looking for gold.

57

Bartholomew De la Casa

1. Fought for humane treatment of Indians.
2. Suggested stop enslaving Indians and enslave Africans instead.

58

Black Death

1. An epidemic mid 14th century - Bubonic plague
2. Killed 1/3 of the European population.
3. It limited supply and food for survivors.
4. Some inherited property for a new life,
5. others sought opportunities elsewhere.

59

Protestant Reformation

1517 -
1. A catholic priest named Martin Luther publicly criticized the catholic church.

2. His views were considered dangerous, but got support from others.

3. He believed that only God could save you.

4. He didn't believe that giving money to church or participating in church rituals would get you closer to heaven.

5. The only true source for Gods will was the Bible.

6. It changed Christianity forever in Western Europe.

60

Martin Luther

1517 - Central Germany

1. A catholic priest publicly criticized the catholic church.

2. Preached the doctrine of justification by faith.

3. Believed Christians would be saved by having faith that God would save them not by giving money to church or practicing religious rituals.

4. Gods will was the bible not the church.

61

Juan De Onate

1. Spaniard who explored New Mexico in 1598

2. Led 500 people to settle in Northern Mexico(New Mexico Today)

3. Married Isabel Tolosa Cortes Montezuma - granddaughter of Cortez and great grand daughter of Montezuma.

4. Searched for Booty

5. Reached the Pueblos present day Albuquerque and Santa fe.

6. Indian in Acoma pueblo revolted against the spaniards. Onate and 800 men,women and children were killed.

62

Tainos

1. Inhabited the Caribbean

2. Grew cassava, corn, cotton, tobacco and other crops.

3. Worshipped a God called Zemis - an ancestral spirit who inhabited natural objects, like trees and stones.

4. Seven Tainos were taken by Columbus - baptized as Christians and taken to King Ferdinand who became their Godfather.

63

Headright

Mid 17th Century

1. Common laborers could buy 100 acres for less than their annual wage. (impossible in England)

2. New settlers who paid for their own transportation to the Chesapeake received a grant of 50 acres of free land.

3. Granted by the Virginia Co. and Royal Government to encourage settlement.

4. High wages and cheap land was an incentive for poor English to immigrate to the New World.

64

Navigation Act

1660

1. Law that assessed an import on tax of two pence on every pound of tobacco brought into England.

2. Gave the King of England a major financial interest in the size of the tobacco crop

65

Quakers

1656 - Arrived in Massachusetts

1. A radical group who believed every single person regardless of race, religion, or gender had equal opportunity to learn about God through Quaker Religion.

2. Woman were allowed to minister

3. Didn't need a bible to know God for yourself.

4. Black men have equal stakes

5. Were at odds with Puritans.

6. Believed God spoke to each individual through inner light.

7. Refused to observe the sabbath day.

66

Mayflower Compact

1. Pilgrims landed to far north of the Virginia Grant at Cape Cod and had no legal authority to settle there.

2. They created the Mayflower Compact to lay claim and security to the area.

67

New Netherlands

1664

1. Became New York

2. King Charles II gave his brother James "The Duke of York" an enormous land grant that included New Netherlands.

3. The Dutch colony did not belong to the King of England.

68

James "The Duke of York"

1. Never set foot in New York.

2. Permitted all persons regardless of religion to inhabit the land provided they do it peacefully without disrupting others.

69

Calvinism

1. A version of Protestantism.

2. Doctrine of John Calvin 16th century Swiss Protestant Theologian.

3. Believed Christians strictly follow biblical scripture.

4. Embraced by Puritans.

5. Believed in predestination.

6. Believed god decided who was going to heaven and who was going to hell,regardless what a person did with their lives.

70

Rodger Williams

1. Arrived with his wife in Massachusetts Feb 1631.

2. Educated in Cambridge.

3. Refused to minister a Boston church because they had not openly rejected the corrupt church of England.

4. Move to Plymouth where he spends lots of time with the Narragansett Indians.

5. Believed nature knows no difference between Europeans and Natives in blood, birth, or bodies.

6. He learned the Indian language, religion, and culture without trying to convert them to Christianity.

7. Believed English claims were legally, morally, and spiritually invalid.

8. He was denounced and banished by New England leaders because his views were extreme and dangerous.

71

Ann Hutchinson

1. Devout Puritan woman who settled in Boston 1634.

2. Mother of 14 kids.

3. Was a midwife.

4. Gave sermons and lectures to 60-80 men.

5. Believed only gods grace and faith led to salvation.

6. Was brought on formal charges by John Winthrop.

7. Followers were called antinomians.

8. Was excommunicated - moved to Road Island Where she and her family were killed by indians.

72

Stone Rebellion

1. 1739 Twenty slaves made a strike for freedom.

2. They killed 2 storekeepers and confiscated guns, ammunition and powder.

3. They burned 1/2 a dozen plantations and killed twenty white men, women and children.

4. The slaves were captured and their heads were mounted on mile posts as a reminder to others.

73

Task System

Gave slaves control over the pace of their work and some discretion in the use of the rest of their time. If task completed a slave could garden, fish or hunt.

74

Enlightenment

1. Thinkers who agreed that science and reason could disclose Gods law in the natural order.

2. People studied the world around them, thought for themselves and asked themselves if the disorderly appearance of things masked the principles of a deeper more profound natural order.

75

Edwards/George Whitefield

1. Edwards a Puritan minister.
2. Whitefield a Anglican preacher

76

Deism

Looked for Gods plan in nature more than the bible.

77

George Whitefield

1. Attracted 10,000 people in towns that had only 15.000 thousands people to his sermons.

2. He brought people to tears and dismay over their sins.

3. Converted Catholics to Protestants

4. Traveled for 10 to 15 yrs.

5. Challenged established churches who required you to pay whether you attended or not.

6. Greater Protestant diversity, creation of new denominations, end of State sponsored churches,the old light VS New Light.

7. Lessening of deference - you didn't have to lower your eyes or cower for the rich or a minister anymore.

8. Questioned Ministers - didn't need ministers to interpret word of God.

9. Questioned Authority

10. Questioned Kings Authority.

11. Rise according to ability.

12. Established boys school so they could read and interpret bible for themselves.

13. Setup IV league Yale Dartmouth

14. Setup the state for the American Revolution

15. Common American Identity.

78

The term Archaic is used by archaeologist to describe?

The cultures that descended from Paleo Indians.

79

Archaic people differed from Paleo-Indian ancestors in that they?

Used stone tools to prepare food and plants.

80

Experts believe that the Cahokians used woodhenges for?

Celestial observation

81

What was a similarity among the many tribes that inhabited North America at the dawn of European colonization?

Their cultures had developed in relation to their local natural environment.

82

When did corn become a food crop for Southwestern cultures?

3500 BP

83

Multistory cliff dwellings and Pueblos are residential structures with the ?

Anasazi culture

84

Ancient Southwestern Indians became experts in the conservation of?

Water

85

What does the term Archaic described?

Hunting and gathering cultures that descended from Pueblo Indians

86

The League of Nations, which remained powerful well into the eighteenth century was formed as?

A confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purpose of war and diplomacy.

87

The Europeans arrived in 1492, Native American cultures were?

So varied that they defy easy simple description.

88

Why did native people in california remain hunters and gathers for hundreds of years after European s arrived in the western hemisphere?

Both land and ocean provided an abundant food supply.

89

HOw do historians study the past?

They study artifacts but mainly concentrate on written documents to determine the attitudes of people.

90

Archaeologist

Study the past and focus on physical artifacts.

91

Folsom hunters of the great plains?

Lived as nomads.

92

Where did permanent agricultural settlement first emerge in North America?

The southwest?

93

Why did Southwestern people develop systems of agriculture?

The availability of wild plants was unreliable.

94

The Mogollon Culture was marked by its?

Pit houses.

95

The empire of the Mexica had it's origins in c. AD 1325 when Mexicans settled near lake Texcoco and?

Worked as mercenaries for other tribes.

96

Ancient Americans and their descendants created societies that were?

Diverse and complex.

97

The muskogean peoples descended from which culture?

Mississippian.

98

By 1492 the indigenous population of the new world was about the same as the population of?

Europe.

99

Where was the empire of the Mexica located?

Central Mexico.

100

Historians base their interpretation of the past largely on?

Written records

101

Unlike the inland and Northern tribes such as the Abenaki, Penobscot and Chippewa-the Algonquin tribes who lived along the Atlantic coast ?

Grew crops.

102

The iroquoian tribes of Pennsylvania and upstate New York lived in?

Permanent settlement

103

Iroquoian societies were unusual in that they were

Matrilineal

104

What prevented human beings from living in the Western hemisphere until long after they had evolved?

Humans couldn't travel to North and South America after the super continent called Pangaea.

105

Homosapiens evolved in and migrated out of which continent?

Africa.

106

What allowed humans to reside permanently in cold regions

Learning how to sew animal skins into warm clothing.

107

The land bridge connecting Siberia to Alaska was exposed from around 80,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago as a result of

A global cold spell.

108

What happened to Puritans in England during the mid seventeenth century?

They ruled the nation from 1649 to 1660.

109

The Navigation Act of 1650 s to 1660 s were designed to regulate colonial trade in order to?

Yield revenues for the crown and English merchants.

110

What characterized colonial commerce by the end of the seventeenth century?

Strong ties to England because of Royal supervision of merchants and shippers.

111

Why was the New England town meeting significant?

Its popular participation was unprecedented during the seventeenth century.

112

New England Puritanism owed it's religious roots to the ?

Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century.

113

Who left Massachusetts for connecticut in 1636 after clashing with church leaders overs the requirements for church membership.

Thomas Hooker

114

Where did the Pilgrims settle after traveling across the Atlantic on the Mayflower?

Plymouth Massachusetts.

115

According to John Winthrop, each family was a

Little Commonwealth

116

Puritans believed that the Church was defined as the?

Men & woman who entered a covenant with each other and God.

117

Puritans believed in predestination, which meant that?

Gods already decided which souls receive eternal life.

118

Ministers in Puritan communities were prohibited from?

Holding government office.

119

What was the long-term result of the English Reformation?

Political turmoil erupted in England

120

How did the 1691 Royal Charter change elections in Massachusetts?

Only those who owned property could vote.

121

Which Monarch reaffirmed the English Reformation, making it a defining feature of English national identity?

Elizabeth I

122

In 1608 separatist Protestants later known as Pilgrims, left England settled in?

Holland.

123

After 1660, the English crown began to?

Consolidate royal authority over colonial governments.

124

Which of the following products could be shipped only to England according to the Navigation Acts?

Tobacco.

125

Massachusetts colonist were horrified that the dominion of England invalidated?

Land titles.

126

Charles II gave William Penn a land grant to found a colony in America for?

Quakers.

127

What type of role could women play in the Quaker faith?

Women assumed positions of leadership.

128

In 1664, the New Netherland became?

New York.

129

The popularity elected assembly in pennsylvania struggled for the right to debate and amend.

Laws.

130

Which English monarch initiated the English Reformation by breaking from Rome and taking control of the church of England.

Henry VIII

131

In 1631, the General Court expanded the number of freemen to include?

All male church members.

132

Ann Hutchinson was excommunicated and banished from Massachusetts after being found guilty of?

The heresy of prophecy.

133

The success of the Puritan Revolution?

Decreased immigration to New England.

134

Who served as leaders of Quaker congregation?

Ordinary men and women.

135

Which colony attracted dissenter through the protection of "Liberty of Conscience"?

Rhode Island

136

Unlike most other immigrant groups in American history, the migration to puritan New England included?

A great number of complete families.

137

Widespread political participation of males in New England town meeting led to?

A reinforcement of community conformity.

138

By the 1700 three quarters of the population of the population of Barbadoes consisted of?

Black slaves.

139

The slave labor system polarized Chesapeake society along the lines of?

Race.

140

What was the Virginia Company?

A Joint Stock Company.

141

In contrast to slaves in Barbados, slaves in the seventeenth century Chesapeake?

Were constantly under white surveillance.

142

What motivated English settles in the Chesapeake to work so hard in the tobacco fields?

Successful farmers earned much higher wages thean workers in England.

143

How did the Virginia Company and later the Royal government, convince settlers to pay own way to Virginia?

By offering fifty acres of land.

144

About 80% of the immigrants to the Chesapeake during the seventeenth century came as?

Servants.

145

Female servants were prohibited from?

Marrying.

146

Who organized an all out assault on English settlers in Virginia in March 1622?

Opechancanough.

147

The 1622 uprising in Virginia prompted?

King James to investigate affairs in the colony.

148

In 1612, John Rolfe change the course of the Virginia colony's development by?

Planting west Indian tobacco seeds for the first time.

149

Which European power dominated the New World during 1500s?

Spain, because it had the most colonial possessions.

150

Cities in what European nation held a monopoly on trade with the far East until the fifteenth century?

Italy.

151

Which factor helped the Spaniards conquer the Mexicans?

A smallpox epidemic ravaged the Mexicans.

152

Which technological advance aided European explorers by the year 1400

The compass.

153

Which event brought Queen Isabella to the throne in 1474?

The death of her brother Henry.

154

Martin Luther and the Catholic church disagreed on?

How salvation could be gained.

155

How did a sea route to Asia impact Europe?

The route allowed merchants to charge lower prices for imported Eastern goods.

156

Who was the first English monarch to provide serious support to colonist in Spanish North America?

King James.

157

Why did tobacco farmers prefer land close to a navigable river?

Rivers allowed farmers to transport tobacco barrels more easily.

158

Why did free families in the chesapeake experience a rough frontier equality until about 1650?

Few men lived long enough to acquire great wealth.

159

Who led the Indian uprising of 1644 in which around 500 hundred colonist were killed in two days?

Opechancanough.

160

The treaty drawn up at the end of the war between opechancanough and Virginia colonist decreed that Indians had to relinquish all claims to land?

Already settled by the English.

161

Why did violence between settlers and Indians increase during the 1660's and 1670?

Settlers encroached on Indian land.

162

Why did the colonies in New Mexico and Florida require expensive subsides in Spain?

The colonies generated little income of their own.

163

What was the goal of Spanish Missionaries in Florida ad New Mexico?

Convert Indians not only to Christianity but to the Spanish culture.

164

What was the most profitable part of the British New World Empire in the seventeenth century?

The caribbean.

165

How did Spain benefit from settling Florida?

The settlement protected Spanish ships from pirates.

166

What was a long term consequence of the catastrophic bubonic plague in Europe?

The plague stimulated exploration for New Market places.

167

After Magellan's voyage to circumnavigate the globe, most Europeans who crossed the Atlantic?

Was headed to the New World.

168

Europeans procured a number of valuable items from the New World including?

Corn and potatoes.

169

The Portuguese determined that the most profitable way to use Africa was to?

Establish coastal trading post.

170

Which explorer sailed around the southern tip of Africa in 1488?

Bartolomeu Dia

171

Which countries monarchy sponsored Columbus initial journey?

Spain.

172

Why were Columbus and his men disappointed by San Salvador?

They didn't find any riches.

173

Which Century was Spain's Golden Age?

Sixteenth.

174

How did the acquisition of wealth from New Spains affect the?

It was not enough to finance their military ambitions.

175

When the Indian population of New Spain dwindled, decimated by European disease and hard labor, who did Spanish bring to the New World to serve them?

African slaves.

176

Who sponsored Martin Frobisher's sailing expedition into the waters of Northern Canada

The Cathay Company

177

From the twelfth century through the fifteenth century, mediterranean trade was dominated by cities in?

Italy.

178

Who organized the English colonization of Roanoke Island?

Sir Walter Raleigh

179

Who were the first Europeans to use New Maritime technology to sail outside the limits of the known world?

The portuguese.

180

When he returned to Florida in 1521 Juan Ponce De Leon?

Was killed by the Calusa Indians.

181

What effect did repartimento have on New Spain?

Forced labor was limited.

182

The social hierarchy of New Spain was?

Stratified by race and country of origin.

183

When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in?

The East Indies.

184

Prior to the fifteenth century, how did luxury and exotic goods travel to Europe.

Over land from Persia, Asia minor, India and Africa.

185

Malinali provided invaluable to Cortez mission because of her knowledge of?

Multiple languages.

186

In 1521, Cortez mounted a victorious assault on the?

Mexicans.

187

The largest treasure produced by Spaniards conquest in the New World came from?

Peru.

188

What was the largest group of non-christian in eighteenth century North America?

Slaves.

189

Members of the eighteenth century Southern gentry set a cultural standard of

Extravagant leisure.

190

In addition to their competition for land colonial settlers and Indians engaged in conflicts over?

The fur trade.

191

Compared with the poor in England, the least wealthy eighteenth century New Englanders?

Lived more comfortably

192

In the eighteenth century, the majority of immigrants coming to American were Scots Irish or?

African.

193

From a planters perspective, what was one advantage to buying slaves in small groups?

Small groups could be trained by seasoned slaves.

194

What was the defining feature of the Southern colonies in the eighteenth century?

Slave labor.

195

Why did Thomas Jefferson state that a [slave] child raised every 2 years is of more profit than the crop of the best laboring [slave] man?

Natural increase would grow his slave holding.

196

What was the comparatively high standard of living in rural Pennsylvania and the surrounding middle colonies between 1720 and 1770?

The consumption of imported goods doubled.

197

What was the purpose of seasoning slaves?

To acclimate them to the environment of the Southern colonies.

198

What kind of social change characterized the British North American colonies over the course of the Eighteenth century?

The population grew to eight times the size it was at the beginning of the century.

199

What was the difference between indentured servants and redemptioners conditions of servitude?

Redemptioners negotiated the terms of their servitude, but indentured servants didn't the right.

200

When settlers dispersed from New England towns in search of farm land?

Puritan communities lost their cohesiveness.

201

The commercial economy of New England was dominated by?

Merchants

202

German and Scots-Irish immigrants both tended to be?

Clannish.

203

The conditions under which a slave labored legally wet by

The masters commands.

204

What was the major export from the middle colonies?

Flour

205

Why did many immigrants avoid New England?

The high ratio of people to land.

206

When bequeathing land, New England families?

Divided the land equally among sons

207

What was the most populous region of the British colonies by 1770?

The South.

208

African slaves in the south came to the United States from?

A variety of cultures

209

During the middle passage (the long trip across the Atlantic from Africa to the Americas), African slaves on average died at a rate of?

15%

210

The vast difference of wealth among white Southerners engendered?

Occasional tension.

211

The European market for colonial goods made it clear that?

Ordinary people could buy small luxury items.

212

Who was the most famous revivalist in the eighteenth century?

George Whitefield.

213

At a minimum, British power?

Defended the colonist from indigenous & foreign enemies.

214

By the 1770, the people living in the thirteen colonies were?

Of diverse ethnic backgrounds.

215

During the eighteenth century colonial assemblies?

Became stronger than Royal governors.

216

About 75% of the colonial populations growth derived from?

Natural increase.

217

About 33% of all eighteenth century immigrants came from?

Africa.

218

How did indentured servitude differ between women and men?

Woman servants could not marry.

219

Which crop turned Virginia into a stable colony?

Tobacco.

220

Indentured servants viewed themselves as

Free people who were servants only temporarily.

221

Which of the following British colonies brought in the greatest profit in 1700?

Barbados.

222

When Pocahontas intervened to save John Smith, she may have been participating in an Algonquian ceremony that

Expressed Powhatan's supremacy.

223

What explains the dispersion of settlements in the Chesapeake?

Tobacco farms required large amounts of land.

224

Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for

Local burgesses.

225

Why were Powhatan and his people suspicious of English intentions?

Colonists often resorted to violence towards the indians.

226

The slave labor system that was introduced to the Chesapeake was "exported" from

Barbadoes.

227

How had political equality in Virginia actually decreased by 1670

Only male landowners and head of households could vote.

228

A servant labor system in the British colonies was made possible by the New World's labor shortage and

The decrease in job opportunities in England

229

How did headrights encourage settlement in the Virginia colony?

They provided fifty acres of land to every settle who paid his own way.

230

What happened in Maryland, Lord Baltimore's planned refuge for Catholics?

Catholics feuded with the Protestant majority.

231

Why did the social and political distance between planters and small farmers decrease between 1660 and 1700

The colony increased its dependence on slave labor.

232

Why did planters maintain the servant system through the 1680s

Free people preferred to work for themselves.

233

Why did the colonies shift an indentured servant labor force to a slave labor force?

Slavery provided a perpetual labor force.

234

What happened to the Spanish colonial outposts in New Mexico and Florida?

They stagnated and primarily attracted religious missionaries.