Integumentary System

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1

The integument

-the largest system of the body
-16% of body weight
-1.5 to 2 m^2 in area

2

Two Parts of the Integument

1.Cutaneous Membrane (skin)
2.Accessory Structures

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Two Components of the Cutaneous Membrane

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1. Outer Epidermis
-superficial epithelium (epithelial tissues)
2.Inner Dermis
-connective tissues

4

Accessory Structures

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-originate in the dermis
-extend through the epidermis to skin surface
*hair
*nails
*multicellular exocrine glands

5

Cardiovascular System

-blood vessels in the dermis

6

Nervous System

-sensory receptors for pain, touch, and temperature

7

Hypodermis

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-loose connective tissue
-below the dermis
-location of hypodermic injections

8

Functions of Skin

-protection of underlying tissues and organs
-excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes (glands)
-maintenance of body temperature
-production of melanin
-production of keratin
-synthesis of vitamin D
-storage of lipids
-detection of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

9

Epidermis

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-avascular stratified squamous
*nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis

10

Keratinocytes

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-contain large amounts of keratin
-are the most abundant cells in the epidermis

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Thin Skin

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-covers most of the body
-has four layers of keratinocytes

12

Thick Skin

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-covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
-has five layers of keratinocytes

13

Stratum Basale

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-is attached to basement membrane b hemidesmosomes
-forms a strong bond between the epidermis and dermis
-forms epidermal ridges (e.g. fingerprints)
-has many basal cells or germinative cells

14

Merkel Cells

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-specialized cell of the stratum basale
-found in hairless skin
-respond to touch

15

Melanocytes

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-specialized cell of the stratum basale
-contains the pigment melanin
-scattered throughpout stratum basale

16

Stratum Spinosum

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-the spiny layer
-produced by division of stratum basale
-eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes
-cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out
-continue to divide, increasing thickness of epithelium
-contain dendritic (Langerhans) cells, active in immune response

17

Stratum Granulosum

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-the grainy layer
-stops dividing, starts producing

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Keratin

-a tough, fibrous protein
-makes up hair and nails

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Keratohyalin

-dense granules
-cross link keratin fibers

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Stratum Lucidum

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-the clear layer
-found only in thick skin
-covers stratum granulosum

21

Stratum Corneum

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-the horn layer
-exposed surface of skin
-15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells
-water resistant
-shed and replaced every 2 weeks

22

Keratinization

-the formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin
-occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except the eyes
-skin life cycle
-it takes 15 to 30 days for a cell to move from the stratum basale to stratum corneum

23

Insensible Perspiration

-interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum

24

Sensible Perspiration

-water excreted by sweat glands

25

Skin Color Influenced by two Pigments

1.Carotene
2.Melanin

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Carotene

-orange-yellow pigment
-found in orange vegetables
-accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis
-can be converted to vitamin A

27

Melanin

-yellow-brown or black pigment
-produced by melanocytes in stratum basale
-stored in transport vesicles (melanosomes)
-transferred to keratinocytes
-protects the skin from sun damage
-skin color depends on melanin production, not number of melanocytes

28

Capillaries and Skin Color

-oxygenated red blood contributes to skin color
-blood vessel dilate from heat, skin reddens
-blood flow decreases, skin pales

29

Cyanosis

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-bluish skin tint
-caused by severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation

30

Jaundice

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-buildup of bile produced by liver
-yellow color

31

Pituitary Tumor

-excess MSH

32

Addison's Disease

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-a disease of the pituitary gland
-skin darkening

33

Vitiligo

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-loss of melanocytes
-loss of color

34

Vitamin D

-epidermal cells produce cholecalciferol (vitamin D)
-liver and kidneys convert vitamin D into calcitriol
-insufficient Vitamin D can cause rickets

35

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

-powerful peptide growth factor
-produced by glands (salivary and duodenum)
-used in laboratories to grow skin grafts
-promotes division of germinative cells
-accelerates keratin production
-stimulates epidermal repair
-stimulates glandular secretion

36

The Dermis

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-located between the epidermis and hypodermis
-anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles and sweat glands)
2 Layers
-Papillary Layer
-Reticular Layer

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The Papillary Layer

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-consists of areolar tissue
-contains small capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons
-has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges

38

The Reticular Layer

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-consists of dense irregular connective tissue
-contains larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
-contains collagen and elastic fibers
-contains connective tissue proper

39

Dermatitis

-an inflammation of the papillary layer
-caused by infection, radiation, mechanical irritation, or chemicals
-characterized by itch or pain

40

Dermal Strength & Elasticity

Two Fibers
1COllagen
2.Elastic FIbers

41

Collagen Fibers

-very strong, resist stretching but bend easily
-provide flexibility

42

Elastic Fibers

-permit stretching and then recoil to original length
-limit the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage to tissue

43

Sagging and Wrinkles are caused by:

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-dehydration
-age
-hormonal changes
-UV exposure

44

Stretch Marks

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-thickened tissue resulting from excessive stretching of skin due to:
*pregnancy
*weight gain

45

Cleavage Lines

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-collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis
-arranged in parallel bundles
-resist force in a specific direction

46

Cutaneous Plexus

-a network of arteries along the reticular layer

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Papillary plexus

-capillary network from small arteries in papillary layer

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Venous Plexus

-capillary return deep to the papillary plexus

49

Contusion

-damage to blood vessels resulting in black and blue bruising

50

Tactile Corpuscles

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-light touch
-located in dermal papillae

51

Lamellated Corpuscles

-deep pressure and vibration
-located in the reticular layer

52

The Hypodermis/Subcutaneous Layer

-lies below the integument
-stabilizes the skin
-allows separate movement
-made of elastic areolar and adipose tissues
-connected to the reticular layer of the integument by connective tissue fibers
-few capillaries and no vital organs
-the site of subcutaneous injections using hypodermic needles

53

Hair

-the human body is covered with except palms, soles, lips, and portions of external genitalia
-protects and insulates
-guards openings against particles and insects
-is sensitive to very light touch

54

Hair Follicle

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-located deep in dermis
-produces nonliving hairs
-wrapped in dense connective tissue sheath
-base is surrounded by sensory nerves

55

Arrector Pili

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-involuntary smooth muscle
-causes hairs to stand up
-produces goose bumps

56

Sebaceous Glands

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-lubricate the hair
-control bacteria

57

Hair ROot

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-lower part of the hair
-attached to the integument

58

Hair Shaft

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-upper part of the hair
-not attached to the integument

59

Hair Shaft Structure

-Medulla
*The central core
*Contains flexible soft keratin
-Cortex
*The Middle Layer
*contain stiff hard keratin
-Cuticle
*The Surface Layer
*contain stiff hard keratin

60

Vellus Hairs

-soft, fine
-covers body surface

61

Terminal Hairs

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-heavy, pigmented
-head, eyebrows, and eyelashes
-other parts of the body after puberty

62

Hair Color

-produced by melanocytes at the hair papilla
-determined by genes

63

Sebum

-contains lipids and other ingredients
-lubricates and protects the epidermis
-inhibits bacteria

64

Apocrine Sweat Glands

-found in armpits, around nipple, and groin
-secrete products into hair follicles
-produce sticky, cloudy secretions
-break down and CAUSE ODORS
-surrounded by myoepithelial cells

65

Merocrine (Eccrine) Sweat Glands

-widely distributed on body surface
-especially on palms and soles
-coiled, tubular glands
-discharge directly onto skin surface
-sensible perspiration
-water,salts, and organic compounds
-cools skin
--excretes water and electrolytes
-flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin

66

Mammary Glands

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-produce milk

67

Ceruminous Glands

-produce cerumen (earwax)
-protect the ear

68

Nails

-protect the fingers and toes
-made of dead cells packed with keratin
-metabolic disorders can change nail structure

69

Nail Production

-occurs in a deep epidermal fold near the bone called nail root

70

Nail Body

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-the visible portion of the nail
-covers the nail bed

71

Lunula

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-the pale crescent at the base of the nail

72

Sides of nails

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-lie in lateral nail grooves
-surrounded by lateral nail folds