Chapter 1

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Campbell Biology
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1

*An organ, such as the liver, is composed of ______

tissues

2

*The digestive system is a/an ______

organ system

3

*The two main types of cells are _____ & ______

prokaryotes and eukaryotes

4

*DNA is composed of building blocks called _____

nucleotides (4 kinds; A, T, C, G, their sequences encode the info in genes)

5

*In eukaryotic cells DNA has the appearance of ___

a double helix (2 long strands make it up)

6

*The use of DNA as the information storage molecule is common to _______

both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

7

*Competition is central to the theory of natural selection and happens because _____

organisms typically produce too many offspring and resources are limited.

8

*Based on the observation that only male crickets produce a song, you hypothesize that a male’s song is a form of communication to potential mates.You set up a simple experiment to test this hypothesis. In the laboratory, you place a male snowy tree cricket in enclosure A, which is adjacent to enclosure B. In enclosure B, you place other insects, one at a time, and observe their responses to the male's song. Placing a MALE SNOWY TREE CRICKET in enclosure B is part of the _____

control group

9

*Based on the observation that only male crickets produce a song, you hypothesize that a male’s song is a form of communication to potential mates.You set up a simple experiment to test this hypothesis. In the laboratory, you place a male snowy tree cricket in enclosure A, which is adjacent to enclosure B. In enclosure B, you place other insects, one at a time, and observe their responses to the male's song. Placing a FEMALE SNOWY TREE CRICKET in enclosure B is part of the _____

experimental group

10

*Based on the observation that only male crickets produce a song, you hypothesize that a male’s song is a form of communication to potential mates.You set up a simple experiment to test this hypothesis. In the laboratory, you place a male snowy tree cricket in enclosure A, which is adjacent to enclosure B. In enclosure B, you place other insects, one at a time, and observe their responses to the male's song. Placing a FEMALE FIELD CRICKET in enclosure B is part of the _____

control group

11

*In order for a hypothesis to be able to be used in science, what must be true?

it is testable and falsifiable

12

*Explain what a scientific theory is

it generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope

13

*The universal genetic language of DNA is common to virtually all organisms on Earth, however diverse. What is the best explanation for this fact?

All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a common ancestry

14

*Is it possible to test hypotheses without conducting experiments?

Yes, such as hypotheses involving historic events.

15

*A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a/an ______

population

16

*Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of what type of regulation?

positive feedback

17

*Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?

taxonomy

18

*What is this an example of? Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and are all photosynthetic; therefore the species is photosynthetic.

Inductive reasoning

19

*Near universality of the genetic code provides evidence of what?

the common ancestry of all life

20

*What is true of natural selection?

It requires genetic variation, results in descent with modification, and involves differential reproductive success

21

*Is an organism that dies after 5 days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce, likely to be successful in an evolutionary sense?

Yes

22

What is EVOLUTION?

the process of change that has transformed life on earth. It is the fundamental organizing principle of biology

23

What is BIOLOGY?

the scientific study of life

24

What are the unifying themes of biology?

Organization, information, energy & matter, interactions, evolution

25

Define REDUCTIONISM

Reduces complex systems into simpler components

26

What are the levels of biological organization, from biggest to smallest?

BIOSPHERE (all life on earth), ECOSYSTEMS (all living things in a particular area, along with the nonliving components they interact with), COMMUNITIES (all organisms inhabiting a certain ecosystem), POPULATIONS (all individuals of a species in a certain area), ORGANISMS (individual living things), ORGAN/ORGAN SYSTEMS (parts of complex forms that cooperate to do a function), TISSUES (group of cells working together to perform a function), CELLS (life's fundamental unit of structure/function), ORGANELLES (functional components present in cells), and MOLECULES (chemical structure of 2 or more atoms)

27

Define the EMERGENT PROPERTIES

properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, due to the arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity increases

28

Define SYSTEMS BIOLOGY

the exploration of a biological system by analyzing interaction among its parts (used to study life at all levels)

29

Actions of organisms are based on the functioning of the smartest unit of organization, called the ______

cell

30

Every cell is enclosed by a membrane that regulates ______

the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings

31

Define PROKARYOTIC and EUKARYOTIC cells

Prokaryotic - cells of single-celled microorganisms, bacteria and archaea, no nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles. Eukaryotic - make up all other forms of life, contains membrane-enclosed organelles

32

Define DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic material within chromosomes

33

What happens to DNA when a cell divides?

The DNA is replicated and each cell has chromosomes identical to the parent cell

34

Define GENES

units of inheritance, encode info to build molecules and establish a cell's identity and function. (DNA in chromosomes, genes in DNA)

35

Explain GENE EXPRESSION

Nucleotides in DNA are transcribed from genes to RNA, which translates into amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

36

What is mRNA?

RNA molecules translated into proteins

37

How does DNA ensure inheritance of genetic info from generation to generation?

By carrying instructions for making proteins and RNA, and by replicating with each cell division

38

Define GENOME

The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits

39

Define GENOMICS and PROTEOMICS

Genomics studying whole sets of genes in 1 or more species
Proteomics - studying sets of proteins and their properties

40

Define PROTEOME

Entire set of proteins expressed by a cell or group of cells

41

Genomic and proteomic approaches have become possible through technology. List 3 important research developments that are part of this technology.

"high-throughput" technology that can analyze biological samples rapidly, bioinformatics (computational tools that store and analyze data), and the formation of interdisciplinary research teams (such as mathematicians, engineers, etc)

42

Define PRODUCERS and CONSUMERS

Producers - photosynthetic organisms
Consumers - organisms that feed on producers and other consumers

43

How are chemicals used in an ecosystem?

They are recycled through the ecosystem (ex: plant absorbs from air/soil, passed to animal that eats plant, returned to environment by decomposers, available to plant again)

44

What types of interactions are there among organisms?

Mutually beneficial (help both organisms) (ex; fish cleans turtle by eating parasites on turtle), sometimes both are hurt (ex: two plants compete for soil that is in short supply), sometimes one is hurt and one is helped (ex: lion eating a zebra).

45

Define FEEDBACK REGULATION and what types there are

When the output of a process regulates that very process. Negative feedback- output negatively regulates process. Positive feedback - end product speeds up production.

46

What is the core theme of biology?

Evolution - the theory that organisms living on earth today are modified descendants of common ancestors.

47

What is TAXONOMY?

Taxonomy names and classifies species based on similar characteristics

48

What is the broadest classification in taxonomy?

Domain (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya)

49

Briefly describe the 3 domains.

Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic (single celled microorganisms) and Eukarya are eukaryotic (multi celled). The 3 kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotes are PLANTAE (produce own food with photosynthesis), FUNGI (absorb nutrients), and ANIMALIA (eat and digest other organisms).Single-celled eukaryotes called PROTISTS are split into several kingdoms under Eukarya.

50

Define "DARWINISM"

The idea of evolution that came with Charles Darwin's book "On the origin of species by means of Natural Selection" in 1859.

51

What were the 2 main points of Darwin's book?

Species arose from differing ancestors ("descent with modification"), and that natural selection is the mechanism of descent with modification.

52

Darwin developed his theory of natural selection based on what observations?

Individuals of a population vary in traits (some of which are hereditary), population can produce more offspring than can survive and reproduce, and species suit their environments.

53

Define NATURAL SELECTION

The best organisms survive and reproduce, the environment "selects" certain traits in the population.

54

What animal did Darwin study on the Galapagos Islands? What did he discover about them?

Finches - he discovered that they split up onto different islands after the volcano and adapted to their environments. On the finch "tree of life", all finches share one common finch ancestor.

55

Define SCIENCE

The approach to understanding the natural world (derived from a latin word that means "to know")

56

Define INQUIRY and the PROCESS OF INQUIRY

Inquiry - Search for information and explanations of natural phenomenon ("at the heart of science")

Process of inquiry - making observations, forming logical & testable explanations (hypotheses), and testing them. From these tests more observations occur and the process continues.

57

Define OBSERVATION and DATA

Observation - gathering of information

Data - recorded observations. Can be QUALITATIVE (descriptions) or QUANTITATIVE (numbers)

58

Define INDUCTIVE REASONING and DEDUCTIVE REASONING

Inductive reasoning - deriving generalizations from a large number of observations (big ideas coming from small ideas)

Deductive reasoning - logic flowing from a general premises to specific results. (small ideas coming from big ideas)

59

Define HYPOTHESIS

A tentative answer to a well-framed question

60

Define EXPERIMENT

A scientific test carried out under controlled conditions

61

Define DEDUCTIONS

predictions of results that will occur if a hypothesis is correct ("if... then" logic)

62

What are the two key points about the use of hypotheses in science?

The initial observations can lead to multiple hypotheses and we can never prove that a hypothesis is true, we can only support it.

63

Do scientists use the scientific method?

They use the general process but not in such a structured form

64

What is the core activity of the scientific process?

Forming and testing a hypothosis

65

What 3 things (other than forming and testing a hypothesis) are included in the flexible scientific process?

Exploration & discovery - inspire hypotheses, asking questions, observing nature

Community analysis and feedback - interactions within the scientific community influence which hypotheses are tested and how, provoke reinterpretations of test results, etc

Societal benefits and outcomes - societal need inspires flurry of hypotheses and studies, well-supported hypotheses affect society and inspire new scientific questions.

66

Define VARIABLES

factors that vary in an experiment

67

Define a CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT

compares an experimental group with a controlled group (the groups should only differ in one factor)

68

Define the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE and the DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Independent variable - the variable that is manipulated

Dependent variable - the variable that is measured

69

Define the CONTROL GROUP and the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Both groups are part of the independent variable. The control group is not changed in any way (natural), the experimental group is changed based on the one variable that is being tested.

70

How do scientists check one another's claims?

They repeat experiments and confirm observations

71

What happens if something new that relates to an old theory is discovered in science?

The old theory is revised to be accurate, or it is completely rejected

72

Define a MODEL ORGANISM

a species that is easy to grow in the lab and works well for questions that are being investigated.

73

Compare the GOAL OF SCIENCE and the GOAL OF TECHNOLOGY

The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena (discovering), the goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge for a specific purpose (inventing).

74

Are science and technology interdependent?

Yes - science helps to improve technology and technological advances help to discover more in science.

75

What drives science and what drives technology?

Science is driven by curiosity (CAN we do it) and technology is driven by societal need (SHOULD we do it)

76

Explain how society is linked to science and technology

Society should be informed of how science works and of the risks & benefits of technology.

77

What does the scientific community reflect?

the cultural standards and behaviors of society (ex: more women are scientists now because women take a bigger part in society)