Chapter 1 Introduction

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1

Ultrasound

Sound or other vibrations having an ultrasonic frequency, particularly as used in medical imaging.

2

Sonography

Medical anatomic imaging employing ultrasound. Comes from the latin word sonus (sound) and the Greek word graphein (to write). Diagnostic Sonography is medical 2D and 3D anatomic and flow imaging using ultrasound.

3

Doppler Ultrasound

Detection, quantization, and evaluation of tissue motion and blood flow using the Doppler Effect with ultrasound.

4

Doppler Effect

A change in frequencies caused by moving objects. Echoes produced by moving objects have frequencies that are different from the pulses sent in to the body. This is put to use in detecting and measuring tissue motion and blood flow.

5

Image

Is a reproduction, representation or imitation of the physical form of a person or object. An ultrasound image is a visible counterpart of an invisible object, produced in an electrical instrument by the interaction of ultrasound and an object.

6

Pulse-echo technique

Pulses of ultrasound are generated by a transducer and are sent into the patient, where they produce echoes at organ at organ boundaries and within tissue. These echoes then return to the transducer where they are detected and then presented on the display.

7

Transducer

Generates the ultrasound pulses and receives the returning echoes.

8

Gray-scale image

A series of spot of different intensities, creating an ultrasound image.

9

Scan line

One line of echo information

10

Linear image

Pulses travel in the same direction, even though they start from different points, and yield vertical parallel scan lines and a rectangular image.

11

Sector image

Each pulse is originates from the same starting point, but subsequent pulses go out in slightly different directions. This creates an image shaped like a piece of pie.

12

Color-Doppler display

Rapid scanning and processing of Doppler data enable color-coded 2D and 3D presentations of Doppler information, super-imposed on a gray-scale image.

13

Spectral-Doppler

measurement and a visual record are made of the shift in frequency of a continuous ultrasonic wave proportional to the blood-flow velocity in underlying vessels; used in diagnosis of vascular disease. It is also used in detection of the fetal heartbeat or of the velocity of movement of a structure, such as the beating heart.

14

The diagnostic ultrasound imaging (sonography) method has two parts:
(1) Sending ___________ of ______________ into the body and (2) using ___________________ received from the anatomy to produce a(n) _________________ of that anatomy.

A) packs, sound, information, listing
B) pulses, frequencies, echoes, description
C) ultrasound, scans, power, image
D) pulses, ultrasound, echoes, image

D) pulses, ultrasound, echoes, image

15

Ultrasound gray-scale scans are ________________ - ____________ images of tissue cross-sections and volumes.

A) pulse - echo
B) virtual - anatomic
C) pseudo - gray
D) artificially presented

A) pulse - echo

16

The brightness of an echo, as presented on the display, represents the ______________ of echo.

A) strength
B) location
C) origin
D) frequency

A) strength

17

A linear scan is composed of many __________, __________ scan lines.

A) horizontal, parallel
B) horizontal, curves
C) vertical, parallel
D) vertical, curved

C) vertical, parallel

18

A sector scan is composed of many scan lines with a common _______________.

A) length
B) brightness
C) origin
D) direction

C) origin

19

A linear scan has a ______________ shape.

A) linear
B) round
C) square
D) rectangle

D) rectangle

20

A sector scan is shaped like a _________ of _________.

A) slice, pie
B) slice, bread
C) scoop, pudding
D) loaf, bread

A) slice, pie

21

A sector scan can have a(n) ____________ or a ___________ top.

A) angled, straight
B) pointed, curved
C) normal, inverted
D) curved, angled

B) pointed, curved

22
card image

an example of an image in which the scan lines do not originate at a common ______________.

A) amplitude
B) disease
C) origin
D) time

C) origin

23

Sonography is accomplished by using a pulse-echo technique. The information of importance in doing this includes the ___________ from which each echo originates and the ____________ of each echo. From this information, the instrument can determine the echo _______________, and ____________ on the display.

A) location, strength, location, brightness
B) location, frequency, frequency, color
C) anatomy, time, delay, color
D) anatomy, strength, delay, brightness

A) location, strength, location, brightness

24

The ___________ is the interface between the patient and the instrument.

A) sonographer
B) Doppler
C) transducer
D) display

C) transducer

25

Transducers generate ultrasound __________ and receive returning ________________.

A) pulses, echo
B) waves, images
C) echoes, pulses
D) images, echoes

A) pulses, echo

26

Three-dimensional echo information is presented on ________________ displays.

A) TV
B) 2D
C) 3D
D) LED

B) 2D

27

Acquisition of a 3D echo data volume requires scanning the ultrasound through several tissue __________.

A) angles
B) orientations
C) types
D) cross-sections

D) cross-sections

28

The Doppler effect is a change in echo ___________.

A) amplitude
B) intensity
C) impedance
D) frequency
E) arrival time

D) frequency

29

The change in the frequency of doppler effect is due to ________________.

A) pathology
B) motion
C) pulses
D) echoes

B) motion

30

The motion that produces the Doppler effect is that of the ___________.

A) transducer
B) sound beam
C) display
D) reflector

D) reflector

31

In medical applications, the flow of _______________ is commonly the source of the Doppler effect. Doppler information is applied to ___________ for audible evaluation and to _________ for visual analysis.

A) urine, loudspeakers, computers
B) blood, earphones, computers
C) lymph, earphones, displays
D) blood, loudspeakers, displays

D) blood, loudspeakers, displays

32

The visual display of Doppler information can be in the form of a ____________-Doppler display or a ___________-Doppler display.

A) spectral, color
B) gray-scale, color
C) linear, sector
D) static, temporal

A) spectral, color

33

Color-Doppler displays can present Doppler-__________ and Doppler-_____________ information in color.

A) frequency, shift
B) frequency, power
C) shift, power
C) bandwidth, shift

C) shift, power

34
card image

A) 2D linear image
B) 2D sector image
C) modified sector image
D) 3D gray-scale image
E) spectral display

A) 2D linear image

35
card image

A) 2D linear image
B) 2D sector image
C) modified sector image
D) 3D gray-scale image
E) spectral display

D) 3D gray-scale image

36
card image

A) 2D linear image
B) 2D sector image
C) modified sector image
D) 3D gray-scale image
E) spectral display

E) spectral display

37
card image

A) 2D linear image
B) 2D sector image
C) modified sector image
D) 3D gray-scale image
E) spectral display

C) modified sector image

38
card image

A) 2D linear image
B) 2D sector image
C) modified sector image
D) 3D gray-scale image
E) spectral display

B) 2D sector image