U.S. district courts exist...
to handle trial-level federal cases
The practice under which judges grant nonmonetary releases if the accused (i.e., person who has been arrested but not yet found guilty) is employed and has roots in the community is called a...
release on recognizance
Which of the following is NOT a factor in how the judge determines the amount of the bail?
admissibility of evidence gathered by the police
Which of the following best describes the discretion given to a prosecutor?
Which of the following is NOT true concerning the role of a prosecutor?
a prosecutor has limited influence in the early stages of the criminal justice process
During a trial, who carries the burden of proving legal guilt?
Which of the following is true about public defenders?
they often face a heavy caseload (i.e., many clients)
Which of the following is true concerning plea bargaining?
it can begin any time after a defendant has an attorney
A bench trial is presided over by...
a judge and no jury
prosecution disclosing all their evidence to the defense
The Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution protects against-
Which of the following is a valid observation about the orientation and assumptions of lower courts in their attempt to process a large mass of cases?
the vast majority of defendants will plead "guilty"
Which of the following is TRUE regarding presentence investigation reports?
they ease the strain of decision making for a judge
It has been found that sentencing judges treat females offenders...
less severely than males in a majority of cases (chivalry hypothesis)
The punishment approach that assumed the social, intellectual, or biological deficiencies of criminals to be the cause of their crimes is referred to as the...
Which Western nation has the most prisoners serving long-term sentences?
Which of the following is not a responsibility of a trial judge?
Which of the following courts are likely to have the least serious cases heard?
trial courts of limited jurisdiction
How many justices sit on the United States Supreme Court?
In Illinois, county level judges are selected in what type of election?
An attorney questioning potential juror members for final jury selection is called
Which of the following uses of removing jurors is unlimited to both the prosecutor and the defense?
challenge for cause
The change of venue is considered during which phase of the criminal justice process?
Within the criminal justice system, most convicted offenders are in
What type of jury is subjected to voir dire?
Which of the following is TRUE concerning prison rates in Europe compared to the United States?
U. S. has a higher incarceration rate
Probation officers play a role in sentencing by...
preparing the presentence report for the judge
After a suspect is arrested, he/she cannot be deprived of freedom until guilt is proven.
Most felony cases are disposed of by dismissals.
Prosecutors have great influence at virtually every stage of the criminal justice process.
Prosecutors are careful not to make mistakes because they face severe punishment from the state if they convict innocent people.
During the discovery process, it is legal for a prosecutor to hide from a defense attorney any evidence which tends to show that the defendant is actually innocent.
German prosecutors act against and in favor of suspects in criminal cases.
Because trials are so infrequent, defense attorneys' working lives tend to be quite different than the lives of attorneys as portrayed on television.
In most cases involving plea bargains and dismissals, defense attorneys are more like a cooperating partner and less like an all-out adversary to a prosecutor.
The majority of convicted offenders serving time in state prisons were indigent defendants who received publicly provided defense attorneys.
Public defenders often have trouble gaining the trust and cooperation of their clients.
Although they cooperate in many cases, public defenders are sufficiently independent of prosecutors and judges to make choices about whether to seek a trial or to negotiate a plea.
Most defendants initially enter a plea of not guilty.
Most defendants accused of a felony will be found guilty in criminal court.
Defendants have the option to choose a bench trial, a judge without a jury.
The substantial majority of cases go to trial.
An example of retribution is the saying, "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
Indeterminate sentences may encourage convicted offenders to focus upon rehabilitation.
A determinate sentence means that the defendant determines his own punishment with the assistance of a counselor.
All fifty states impose death as a sentence.
The prison population contains the same proportion of African-Americans as the general population (i.e., about 12% of the prison population is African-American).
Sentencing guidelines (offered through determinate sentencing models) provide additional discretion for judges in the sentencing process.
Judges do not have discretion in indeterminate sentencing structures.