Site of filtrate formation.
Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.
Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs
Proximal convoluted tubule
) Low pressure, porous vessels that reabsorb solutes and water from the tubule cells
) High pressure vessel that forces fluid and solutes into the glomerular capsule.
May form meandering vessels or bundles of long straight vessels.
) Play a role in urine concentration.
Fenestrated vessels that allow passage of all plasma elements but not blood cells.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
a vasa recta
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
by a decrease in the blood pressure
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
by a decrease in the blood pressure
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
is drained by an efferent arteriole
The descending limb of the nephron loop ________.
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
Which of the following does not describe the justaglomerular complex?
Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segment
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
changes in solute content of the filtrate
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
slightly higher than water
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
6. collecting duct
nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter,urethra
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?
Which of the following is NOT true regarding tubular reabsorption?
It is a purely passive transport process.
Which of the following is the least important influence on reabsorption of a substance in the nephron?
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
secondary active transport
Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
Which of the following is the correct sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus?
pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.
appear in the urine
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Which of the choices below is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
by secreting sodium ions
In the ascending limb of the nephron loop the ________.
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
Which of the choices below is the least important role of tubular secretion?
ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
Which of the choices below is NOT a glomerular filtration rate control method?
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
angiotensin II and aldosterone
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
macula densa cells
ADH activated water channels called ________ are essential for water reabsorption in the collecting duct.
The need to get up in the middle of the night to urinate is called ________.
The area between the ureters and urethra is called the ________ in a bladder.
The ________ mechanism is the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.
The presence of pus in the urine is a condition called ________.
Sodium-linked water flow across a membrane not under hormonal control is called ________ water reabsorption.
List three substances that are abnormal urinary constituents and provide the proper clinical term for such abnormalities.