packet 21 chapter21 Flashcards


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1

Area where B cells become immunocompetent.

bone marrow

2

Area where T cells become immunocompetent.

thymus

3

Area where activated immunocompetent B and T cells recirculate.

blood

4

Area seeded by immunocompetent B and T cells.

lymph node

5

Area where antigen challenge and clonal selection are most likely to occur.

lymph node

6

First line of defense.

Intact skin and mucous membranes

7

Second line of defense.

Inflammatory response

8

Third line of defense.

Immune response

9

Innate defense system.

Inflammatory response and skin and mucous membranes

10

Adaptive defense system.

Immune response

11

Enables quick and efficient response to secondary exposure to antigen

Memory cell

12

Absence results in no immune response

Helper T cell

13

Forms antibody producing cells

B cell

14

Kills cancer cells and virus infected body cells

Cytotoxic T cell

15

Slows or stops the immune response

Regulatory T cell

16

Main antibody of both primary and secondary immune response.

IgG

17

Protects mucosal barriers.

IgA

18

Involved in allergies.

IgE

19

Along with IgM, this is a B cell receptor.

IgD

20

First to peak during a primary immune response.

IgM

21

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

22

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

23

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

antigenic

24

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

bone marrow

25

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

26

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

vasodilation

27

The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.

disulfide

28

In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

antigen

29

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil

30

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.

chemotaxis

31

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.

haptens

32

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

33

Which of the following is not a role of activated complement?

prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions

34

Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

pathogens in the lumen of the stomach

35

Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?

Macrophages

36

Interferons ________.

interfere with viral replication within cells

37

Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?

Our genes

38

Regulatory T cells ________.

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

39

Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

Isografts are between identical twins.

40

Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes.

41

Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

Cytokines

42

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

phagocytes

43

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

44

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

45

T-cell activation requires ________.

antigen binding and co-stimulation

46

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

natural killer cells

47

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

opsonization

48

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

49

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.

juvenile diabetes

50

Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

allergic contact dermatitis

51

Innate immune system defenses include ________.

phagocytosis

52

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT or FALSE?

Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

53

Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

54

Fever ________.

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

55

Immunocompetence ________.

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

56

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."

Tolerance is developed during fetal life

57

Cytotoxic T cells ________.

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

58

Helper T cells ________.

function in the adaptive immune system activation

59

Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency..

The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

60

Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

61

Delayed hypersensitivities ________.

include allergic contact dermatitis

62

Natural killer (NK) cells ________.

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

63

Select the correct statement about antigens.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

64

Clonal selection of B cells ________.

results in the formation of plasma cells

65

The primary immune response ________.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

66

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

67

Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

helper T cell

68

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

type II diabetes

69

Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

a second exposure to an allergen

70

Which of the following is not a complement activation pathway?

lactate pathway

71

Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

72

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

73

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

direct cell lysis

74

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

75

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

76

Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?

IgD

77

Suppressor factors are ________ that suppress the immune system.

cytokines

78

Pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant are called ________ antibodies.

monoclonal

79

The most common type of immediate hypersensitivity is ________.

allergy

80

Natural killer cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells ________ the immune system is activated.

before

81

Septic shock is a dangerous condition where the ________ are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.

Cytokines

82

Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called ________.

Pathogens

83

A group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body are referred to as ________.

Complement

84

The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is ________.

Ige

85

A(n) ________ is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells and B lymphocytes.

Hybridoma

86

Failure of developing T cells to recognize self MHC during positive selection results in ________.

Apoptosis

87

An autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal function is ________.

Glomerulonephritis