US History 1 Ch 1-15 Final Exam Review
Define and primary and secondary source. Discuss how bias relates to each. Use an example from class lecture to explain how sources can contain bias.
Primary - something that was created during a particular time that is being studied or examined
Secondary - something that was created after a particular time that is being studied or examined
Compare and contrast Native American ideas of freedom with those of European colonists. Use specific examples.
European Freedom- meant obedience to law and living according to your social class. Women obeyed men.
"They are born, live, and die in a liberty without restraint," wrote one religious missionary. They were too free, lacking the order and discipline that Europeans considered the hallmarks of civilization.
Native Americans were free. personal independence often based on ownership of private property, had little meaning in most Indian societies.
Using class lecture, compare and contrast England’s northern and southern colonies. Your answer must mention economic and social issues.
North: Small towns surrounded by adjacent fields. Revolved heavily around Religion and Education, Puritans built Schools and Churches in each town.
South: centered around plantation life. Mostly men early on, no focus on education and not as heavy on religion. Most men were indentured servants.
Define the Enlightenment. List two ways the Enlightenment impacted the American colonies.
18th century cultural and intellectual movement that emphasized the power of reason and focused on improving human life in the here and now. Philidellphia was the center of the disscussion of enlightenment ideas in america, especially after the formation of the american philosophical society in 1769
List two ways the Enlightenment impacted the American colonies.
Because of Enlightenment, people started believing that agreement must exist between people and leader. Which People started thinking about improving their individual lot and to invent useful devices to help the society.
List two effects of the French and Indian War.
War between britain and france that ended with british domination of north america.
-Effectively ended French political and cultural influence in North America. England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent.
-The cost of the war laid the foundation for colonial conflicts that would lead to the american revolution.
Describe the First Great Awakening. What was its impact on the American colonies?
Christian revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, and especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ. Pulling away from ritual and ceremony, the Great Awakening made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality
How did the American Revolution impact each of the following: women; African Americans; Native Americans
Women were now allowed to divorce. Not property of their husbands.
Native Americans- did not look good
African Americans- Contradictory impact on American slavery. Slaves picked up the language of the revolution to inspire their own freedom.
How did the factory system change the nature of work in the early 1800s? How did it change ideas of gender?
Factories gathered large groups of workers under central supervion and replaced hand tools with power driven machinery. Things were no longer out sourced to rural men and farm families to finish products.
Instead of being on a farm and working by the seasons. People worked in cities and usually for a set number of hours a day.
How did the factory system How did it change ideas of gender?
First time in history large numbers of women left their homes to participate in the public world and work.
Describe the Second Great Awakening. List two ways it impacted American society.
Religious revival movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the predominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches.
The Second Great awakening was a newly advanced version of Protestantism. Many people gathered in large groups to hear the sermons and teachings of these ministers. This provided people with the opportunity to find spiritual satisfaction. One of the main teachings was about saving yourself instead of the old teaching of predestination.
Describe the following: Articles of Confederation
the constitutional basis for national government from 1781 to 1788. The articles defined the union as a loose confederation of states existing mainly to foster a common defense. The articles provided for no executive and limited congress's authority to tax leaving most of the political power in the hands of the states.
Uprising led in Massachusetts farmer and former soldier Daniel Shays. Sparked by what dissidents considered the oppressive policies of the eastern elites who controlled the states government. Caused leaders to worry about the confederations ability to handle civil disorder
compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
uprising in 1794 by farmers in western Pennsylvania to protest the federal excise tax on liquor that was established in 1791
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by the federalist congress to supress political dissent. The Sedition Act not only made conspiracy and revolt illegal but also penalized speaking or writing anything that defamed the president of congress.the two alien acts extended the waiting period to achieve citizenship to 5-14 years, required aliens to register with the federal government and empowered the president in a time of war to deport or imprison without trial any foreigner suspected of being a danger to the US.
Describe Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson's debate over the National Bank.
Jefferson believed the new national bank unconstitutional, since the right of Congress to create a bank was not mentioned in the Constitution.
Hamilton- insisted his plans were authorized by the Constitutions ambiguous clause empowering Congress to enact laws for the "general welfare."
Describe the election of 1828. How did this election differ from previous elections?
Election pinning Andrew Jackson against John Quincy Adams. Adams was portrayed as an elitist and monarchist, while Jackson was portrayed as a bastard son of a prostitute. Jackson won the election. Political parties were seen as a good thing after this election. The two dominating parties were Whigs and Democrats.
Describe the Nullification Crisis (Jackson v. South Carolina). What was the result?
The doctrine that when Congress overstepped its powers, states had the right to nullify Congress's acts. South Carolina advanced this in 1828 in response to passage of the Tariff of Abominations. A show of force by Andrew Jackson, combined with revision of the objectionable tariff, prompted South Carolina to withdraw it.
The policy encouraged by South Carolina that states had the right to nullify Congress's acts if they overstep their powers. Jackson became outraged by this declaration as it was directed towards the tariffs and nearly invaded South Carolina.
Calhoun was a leading advocate of South Carolina's statement of nullification. When Jackson ignored Calhoun's views on the subject, Calhoun resigned and became a senator to better serve the interests of his state.
Describe two southern arguments that justify slavery
-Fear of social upheaval
-slavery was Biblical
-Slaves were happy
Describe two abolitionists we discussed in class.
William Lloyd Garrison
-Published a news paper in 1831 called "The Liberator" - -Wanted an immediate end to slavery and was uncompromising -- Wanted to do away with constitution and start over
Most Famous "conductor" of underground Railroad.
-Former Slave in New York - Escaped before gradual abolition - became a lecturer on womens rights and abolition
Describe the following stereotypes that stem from slavery: Mammy,
Mammy- Mammy as an asexual, maternal and deeply religious woman whose main task was caring for the master's children and running his household, the slave-owner found in her the perfect slave.
Describe the following stereotypes that stem from slavery: Jezebel
Jezebel "is the promiscuous female with an insatiable sexual appetite."
Describe the following stereotypes that stem from slavery: Saphire
African American women are portrayed as evil, bitchy, stubborn and hateful. In other words, Sapphire is everything that Mammy is not. Sapphire was created to battle the corrupt African American male whose "lack of integrity, and use of cunning and trickery provides her with an opportunity to emasculate him through her use of verbal put-downs."
Sapphire's claims of sexual abuse would be overshadowed by her "reputation for deception, lying and lack of loyalty."
Define the following: Compromise of 1850
This compromise signed by Millard Fillmore deals with disputed territory, and the controversy of whether California should join. The results were that California joined as a free state, and what was left of the Mexican Cession land became New Mexico and Utah, and did not restrict slavery. The compromise benefited the North more than the South.
Define the following: Dred Scott Decision
a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans whether slave or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.
Dred Scott, an African American slave who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the Court denied Scott's request and in doing so, ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional for the second time in its history
Define the following: Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Define the following: Election of 1860
The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President due to the schism of the Democrats. Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln's policies.
Describe the following: Border States during the Civil War
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia (1863)
Lincoln had to keep these states due to their location, population, and transportation advantages. Did not want to be too rash to lose border states.
Describe the following: Emancipation Proclamation
An executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as a war measure during the American Civil War, to all segments of the Executive branch of the United States. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion, thus applying to 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in the U.S. at the time. This was NOT a law passed by Congress
Describe the following: Battle of Gettysburg
Fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.
Define the following: 13th Amendment
Define the following: 14th Amendment
Gave citizenship to anyone born in the U.S. and allowed the government to protect the rights of Americans
Define the following: 15th Amendment
Prohibited governments to not allow someone to vote because of their race
Define the following: Congressional Reconstrcution
Established temporary military governments in ten confederate states- except TN- and required that the states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and permit freedmen to vote
Define the following: Freedmon's Bureau
A U.S. agency that was established during Reconstruction, which intended to help free slaves transition from slavery to freedom. Officially called the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
Define the following: Sharecropping
A system of farming that came out of the plantation system during Reconstruction. It was basically the slavery system, where the slaves worked on the land but received food and shelter, but with this system, the slaves were no longer slaves. The landowners did not own the slaves.