Chapter 26 fluid and electrolyte balance Study guide Flashcards


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1

How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?

2/3

2

80% of the extracellular fluid is:

interstitial fluid

3

This is the largest single component of the human body

water

4

This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain:

dehydration

5

which of the following is used to promote sodium reabsorption by the kidneys?

aldosterone

6

which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys

andiuretic hormone

7

Water intoxication results from:

dilute body fluids and a a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids

8

Which of the following is a specific function of electrolytes in the body

carry electrical currents

9

in extracellular fluid the most abundant CATION is

Na+

10

in extracellular fluid the most abundant ANION is:

Cl-

11

in INTRACELLULAR fluid the most abundant cation is

K+

12

The Na+ level in blood is controlled by

aldosterone

13

This occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases

chloride shift

14

This is the most abundant mineral in the body

Calcium

15

PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are

the main regulators of calcium in the blood

16

Buffer systems exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all

ways to eliminate H+ from the body

17

This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35

acidosis

18

Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause

blood pH to decrease

19

This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values:

respiratory acidosis

20

This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis:

vomiting

21

This is the most common cause of transitory respiratory alkalosis

hyperventilation

22

The rate of fluid intake and outtake is how much higher i an infant than in an adult

7times higher

23

The largest volume of body fluid is located

within cells

24

Bone, DNA,RNA, ATP and cell membranes all have one thing in common

phosphate

25

Levels of which of the following are regulated by aldosterone

sodium

26

Electrolytes

dissociate into anions and cations

27

Reabsorption of sodium from tubules of the nephron establishes an osmotic gradient that causes this to move back into the blood

water

28

The cerebrospinal fluid in the brain is classified as:

extracellular fluid

29

Hyperventilation (breathing in and out more air than normal) during a panic attack causes an increase in blood:

partial pressure of CO2

30

The oxygen atoms that we breath in are used immediately in aerobic respiration to make ATP and:

H2O

31

True/False: ADH and aldosterone are hormones that regulate fluid loss

True

32

The primary way to increase body water is to increase the formation of metabolic water

False

33

Most buffers consist of a mixture of weak acid that can donate H+ and the salt of that weak acid that can accept H+. Through this action pH change is resisted due to increases and decreases in H+ concentration

True

34

An increase in blood volume will stimulate thirst.

False

35

Albumin is a protein "buffer"in blood plasma

True

36

Changes in osmolarity and osmosis are the primary causes of water movements between various flud compartments in the body

True

37

Lists: LIst four hormones that regulate urine production in the kidneys:

ADH, aldosterone, angiotensin II, atrial naturetic peptide

38

Matching: Can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severy anxiety

Respiratory alkalosis

39

Can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs

metabolic alkalosis

40

AN abnormal increase in the volume of intersitial fluid

Edema

41

Can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells that release phosphates into the blood

hyperphosphatemia

42

Can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of the kidneys to excrete H+

metabolic acidosis

43

Can be caused by excessive waterintake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency

Hyponatremia

44

Can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles of breathing

respiratory acidosis

45

Can occur from hypoparathyroidism

hypocalcemia

46

Can be caused by decreased potassium intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, increased urine output, changes in electrocardiogram

hypokalemia

47

condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases

hypovolemia

48

Can be caused by excessive sodium in the diet or with dehydration

hypernatremia

49

occurs when water loss is greater than water gain

dehydration

50

the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells

water intoxication