Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 23 test Flashcards


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1

What are the major regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, greater curvature, pyloric atrium, pyloric canal and pyloric sphincter

2

what kind of stimulation stimulates digestive activities

parasympathetic

3

what kind of stimulation inhibits digestive activities

sympathetic

4

swallowing occurs in the

oropharynx

5

major functions of mucosa

secrete mucus enzymes and hormones
absorb products into blood
protect against infectious disease

6

This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon

ileocecal sphincter

7

which gastric enzymes digest proteins

pepsin

8

why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion

because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract

9

Layers of the GI tract

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

10

the soft palate closes off the _____________ during swallowing

nasopharynx

11

what two passageways are for food, air and water

oropharynx and laryngopharynx

12

what is tongue tied and what is the condition called

an extremely short lingual frenulum and the condition is called ankyloglossia

13

which enzyme digest carbohydrates

amylase

14

glands found in the duodenum

Brunners

15

what kind of stimulation inhibit digestive activities

sympathetic stimulation

16

another name for the right colic flexure

hepatic

17

hepatic or stellate macrophages in liver sinusoids that remove debris and old RBC

Kupffer cells

18

brings nutrient rich blood to the liver

hepatic vein

19

the ascending colon is called

hepatic flexure

20

the tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the

oropharynx

21

which pancreatic enzyme acts on glycogen and starches

amylase

22

muscularis of the GI tract

mucosa, submucosa, musclaris externa, serosa

23

innermost layer of the GI tract

mucosa

24

produces 900ml of bile daily

liver

25

which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce monosaccharides

amylase

26

the structure of the stomach that allows greater distension for food storage

rugae

27

which organ stores bile

gallbladder

28

which organ emulsifies dietary fat

liver

29

accessory organs that produce a fluid to soften food

salivary glands

30

this digestive aid produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins

hydrochloric acid

31

the heaviest gland in the body

liver

32

when the stomach is empty it collapses inward, throwing it's mucosa into large, longitudinal folds called

rugae

33

what are the deciduous dentition

primary teeth

34

what is deglutition

swallowing

35

what structure prevents foods or water from entering trachea

epiglottis

36

the sublingual glands contain mostly what kind of cells

mucous

37

lies under the tongue and opens via 10-20 ducts into the floor of the mouth

sublingual glands

38

an inflammation of the parotid glands

mumps

39

functions of salvia

cleanses the mouth, dissolves food chemicals, moistens food, contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of starchy foods

40

forms a rigid surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing

hard palate

41

the superior labial frenulum attaches the upper lip to the

gingivae

42

provide the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and control GI tract motility

myenteric nerve plexus

43

primary function of the mouth

chew food and mix it with salvia containing enzymes that begin the process of digestion

44

this plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth layers of the muscularis

myenteric nerve plexus

45

in the esophagus, the serosa is replaced by an

adventitia

46

layer of the GI tract composes of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis

submucosa

47

function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system

produces local movements of the mucosa. throws the mucosa into a series of small fold that increase its surface area

48

this portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine

greater omentum

49

which glands secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acidic chyme

brunners

50

these are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response

lamina propria

51

what do the parietal cells secrete

gastric acid and intrinsic factor

52

the muscularis externa is responsible for

segmentation and peristalsis

53

the parotid glad secretes mostly

serous cells

54

the esophagus begins here and extends to the stomach

laryngopharynx