Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.
Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?
increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?
What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?
thickness of the walls
What is the main function of the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.
Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?
bones and teeth
Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?
Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax
What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?
Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?
right side of the head
Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?
What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?
reticular connective tissue
What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?
produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies
What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?
capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
Which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus? Select from letters A-D.
Which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the intestinal wall and generates "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory? Select from letters A-D.
Which letter represents the tonsils? Select from letters A-D.
Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?
cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions
The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.
Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?
What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?
Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life? Select from letters A-D.
Which of these lymphoid organs is a part of collection of tissues called the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and removes pathogens entering the pharynx (throat)? Select from letters A-D.
Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse? Select from letters A-D.
Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?
Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?
Where is the spleen located?
left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
Where is the lingual tonsil located?
base of the tongue
Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?
Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?
What type of cell is the precursor to the helper T cell?
What type of cell is a precursor to the cytotoxic T cell?
What activates CD8 cells?
antigen fragments on class I MHC proteins
What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?
cytotoxin T (TC) cells
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells check cells of the body for identity flags to see if they look they way they are supposed to. What is this process called?
Which type of T cell will recognize antigens associated with an allograft?
cytotoxin T (TC) cell
Which letter represents the formation of a phagolysosome resulting from the fusion of a lysosome with the phagocytic vesicle? Select from letters A-D.
With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?
Which letter represents the adhesion of the phagocyte to the pathogen? Select from letters A-D.
Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?
Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is released by mast cells?
Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
When do neutrophils enter the blood from the red bone marrow, in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors?
What is the main event of chemotaxis?
Neutrophils and other WBCs migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of injury.
Neutrophils flatten and squeeze between the endothelial cells of the capillary walls during what process?
What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?
How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?
Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.
What is the specific target of interferons?
nearby healthy cells
Which cells mature in the thymus?
How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?
Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.
What are B and T cells called that have not yet been exposed to an antigen?
How would you classify the antivenom used to treat poisonous snake bites?
passive immunity, artificially acquired
Which of the following exemplifies passive immunity?
Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?
What part of the antibody's structure determines its class?
constant (C) region
Which immunoglobulin class can cross the placenta to provide naturally acquired passive immunity to the fetus?
What is the first antibody released in the primary response and usually indicates infection?
Which mechanism occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins?
Which of the following mechanisms of antibody action occur when red blood cells clump due to a transfusion of mismatched blood?
Which mechanism of antibody action results in cell lysis?
complement fixation and activation