CH. 20 21 art questions

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1
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Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.

minivalves

2
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Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

3
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To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?

heart

4
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What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?

thickness of the walls

5
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What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

6
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Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

bones and teeth

7
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Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

thoracic duct

8
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Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax

9
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What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?

cisterna chyli

10
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Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?

right side of the head

11
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Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

thoracic duct

12
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What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

reticular connective tissue

13
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What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?

produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

14
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What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?

capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes

15
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Which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus? Select from letters A-D.

B

16
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Which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the intestinal wall and generates "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory? Select from letters A-D.

D

17
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Which letter represents the tonsils? Select from letters A-D.

A

18
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Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

19
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The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

lymph nodes

20
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Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

trabeculae

21
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What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?

cortex

22
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Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life? Select from letters A-D.

B

23
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Which of these lymphoid organs is a part of collection of tissues called the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and removes pathogens entering the pharynx (throat)? Select from letters A-D.

A

24
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Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse? Select from letters A-D.

C

25
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Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

white pulp

26
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Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

red pulp

27
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Where is the spleen located?

left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

28
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Where is the lingual tonsil located?

base of the tongue

29
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Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?

capsule

30
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Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

pharyngeal tonsil

31
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What type of cell is the precursor to the helper T cell?

CD4 cell

32
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What type of cell is a precursor to the cytotoxic T cell?

CD8 cell

33
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What activates CD8 cells?

antigen fragments on class I MHC proteins

34
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What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?

cytotoxin T (TC) cells

35
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Cytotoxic T (TC) cells check cells of the body for identity flags to see if they look they way they are supposed to. What is this process called?

immune surveillance

36
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Which type of T cell will recognize antigens associated with an allograft?

cytotoxin T (TC) cell

37
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Which letter represents the formation of a phagolysosome resulting from the fusion of a lysosome with the phagocytic vesicle? Select from letters A-D.

C

38
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With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?

opsonins

39
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Which letter represents the adhesion of the phagocyte to the pathogen? Select from letters A-D.

A

40
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Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?

edema (swelling)

41
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Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is released by mast cells?

histamine

42
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Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?

vasoconstriction

43
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When do neutrophils enter the blood from the red bone marrow, in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors?

leukocytosis

44
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What is the main event of chemotaxis?

Neutrophils and other WBCs migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of injury.

45
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Neutrophils flatten and squeeze between the endothelial cells of the capillary walls during what process?

diapedesis

46
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What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?

interferons (IFNs)

47
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How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?

Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.

48
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What is the specific target of interferons?

nearby healthy cells

49
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Which cells mature in the thymus?

T cells

50
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How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?

Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.

51
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What are B and T cells called that have not yet been exposed to an antigen?

naive

52
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How would you classify the antivenom used to treat poisonous snake bites?

passive immunity, artificially acquired

53
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Which of the following exemplifies passive immunity?

antitoxin

54
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Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?

vaccines

55
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What part of the antibody's structure determines its class?

constant (C) region

56
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Which immunoglobulin class can cross the placenta to provide naturally acquired passive immunity to the fetus?

IgG

57
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What is the first antibody released in the primary response and usually indicates infection?

IgM

58
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Which mechanism occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins?

neutralization

59
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Which of the following mechanisms of antibody action occur when red blood cells clump due to a transfusion of mismatched blood?

agglutination

60
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Which mechanism of antibody action results in cell lysis?

complement fixation and activation