Chapter 4 Muscle & Nervous Tissue, Membranes, Repair, Development

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1

Tissue type responsible for body movement?

Muscle

2

Versions of actin and myosin filaments that bring about movement or contraction?

Myofilaments

3

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

4

Skeletal muscle cells, also called __________, are long cylindrical cells.
Muscle fibers

Muscle fibers

5

__________ muscle is found only in the walls of the heart.

Cardiac

6

__________ muscle is named so because it has no visible striations

Smooth

7

True or False
Skeletal muscle is involuntary, cardiac and smooth muscles are voluntary.

False
Skeletal in voluntary, the other 2 are involuntary.

8

What tissue regulates and controls body function?

Nervous

9

What are the 2 major cell types of nervous tissue?

Neurons and supporting cells

10

True or False
Supporting cells conduct nerve impulses, and Neurons are non-conducting cells

False
Neurons conduct impulses. Supporting cells support, insulate, and protect neurons.

11

Neurons respond to stimuli via processes called __________.

Dendrites

12

Neurons transmit electrical impulses via processes called __________.

axons

13

What are the 3 types of covering and lining membranes?

Cutaneous
Mucous
Serous

14

__________ membrane is your skin.

Cutaneous

15

__________ membranes line all body cavities that open to the outside of the body.

Mucous

16

In mucous membranes, the epithelial sheet lies directly over a layer of loose connective tissue called the __________, but in some, the __________ rests on a 3rd layer of smooth muscle cells.

lamina proper

17

__________ membranes are the moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities.

Serous

18

__________ fluid lubricates the facing surfaces of the parietal and visceral cavities so the organs can slide across easily.

serous

19

What are the 3 types of serous membranes?

Pleurae
Pericardium
Peritoneum

20

Match.
1. Pleurae
2. Pericardium
3. Peritoneum

A. line the thoracic wall and cover lungs
B. Encloses the abdominopelvic viscera
C. Encloses the heart

1. A
2. C
3. B

21

Name some body-defenses that help keep the body safe from the external environment.

Skin, mucous, cilia, stomach acid.

22

The __________ response is a relatively nonspecific reaction that happens quickly when there is an injury.

inflammatory

23

The _________ response is very specific, but takes longer to spring into action.

immune

24

What are the steps of tissue repair?

Inflammation starts
Organization restores the blood supply
Regeneration and Fibrosis

25

True or False
Regeneration replaces destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.

True

26

True or False
Fibrosis is the formation of a scar.

True

27

Which of these options decide whether Fibrosis or Regeneration needs to occur:
1. The type of tissue damage
2. The severity of the injury
3. The age of the organism

Both 1 and 2.

28

_________ is the first phase of tissue repair.

Organization

29

During organization, the blood clot is replaced by __________ tissue.

granulation

30

True or False
Cardiac muscles and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord regenerate extremely well and quickly.

False
They have virtually no functional regenerative capacity. They are routinely replaced by scar tissue.

31

Scar tissue is strong, but lacks flexibility like the original tissue. Why is this?

It is composed mostly of collagen fibers.

32

How could the formation of a scar on the bladder, heart, and other muscular organs produce a homeostatic imbalance?

The scar reduces the internal volume, and could hinder or block substances from moving through.

33

1 of the first events of embryonic developement is the formation of the 3 _______________.

primary germ layers

34

What are the 3 primary germ layers?

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm.

35

Relatively undifferentiated cells that divide as necessary to produce new cells are the ________ cells.

stem