Anatomy Exam 1

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by srigot55
2,436 views
updated 8 years ago by srigot55
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year, Graduate school, Professional
Subjects:
human anatomy
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Buccal

Anatomical term referring to the cheek

2

coxal

Anatomical term referring to the hip

3

acromial

Anatomical term referring to the highest point of the shoulder

4

axillary

Anatomical term referring to the armpit

5

cubital

Anatomical term referring to the elbow (whole joint)

6

antecubital

Anatomical term referring to the anterior (bending side) of the elbow

7

olecranal

Anatomical term referring to the posterior (rounded) side of the elbow

8

carpal

Anatomical term referring to the wrist

9

manual

Anatomical term referring to the hand

10

inguinal

Anatomical term referring to the groin where the thigh attaches to the pelvis

11

popliteal

Anatomical term referring to the posterior surface of the knee

12

crural

Anatomical term referring to the anterior side of the leg (shaft)

13

sural

Anatomical term referring to the posterior side of the leg (shaft)

14

fibular or peroneal

Anatomical term referring to the lateral (fibula) side of the leg

15

tarsal

Anatomical term referring to the ankle

16

calcaneal

Anatomical term referring to the heel

17

plantar

Anatomical term referring to the sole side of the foot

18

anatomical position

standing up straight, hands are out to the sides with the palms facing up and the thumbs facing out

19

otic

Anatomical term referring to the ear

20

ipsilateral/contralateral

ipsilateral- directional term referring to the same side of the body

contralateral- referring to body parts on opposite sides of the body

21

midsagittal/parasagittal planes

midsagittal- divides the body into equal right and left halves through the midline

parasagittal- divides the body into unequal right and left sides

22

dorsal body cavity

contains the cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral canal (spinal cord)

23

ventral body cavity

anterior side of the body and contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

24

thoracic cavity

within the ventral body cavity

enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebral column

contains the pericardial cavity (heart), 2 pleural cavities (lungs), and the mediastinum (heart, thymus gland, large blood vessels, esophogus, and trachea)

separated from the abdominopelvic region by the diaphragm

25

abdominopelvic cavity

contains the abdominal cavity (stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, appendix, and part of the large intestine) in the superior portion and the pelvic cavity (bladder, reproductive organs (except testes) and part of the large intestine) in the inferior portion

contains digestive and some reproductive organs

separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm

26

movement through the plasma membrane

card image

Channel proteins: channels open to allow small (water soluble) things through with concentration gradients

Lipid soluble molecules (alcohol, oxygen) with concentration gradient goes right through the membrane

Large molecules that are water soluble and against concentration gradient needs carrier proteins (active transport proteins)

27
card image

Name the structure and components

card image

typical cell (pretty active cell)
1= euchromatin: DNA being transcribed
2= nucleus (has a double membraned, nuclear envelope surrounding it)
3= nucleolus:where ribosomes and ribosomal RNA are made
4= nuclear pore: allow substances to pass in between the nucleus and cytoplasm
5= heterochromatin: DNA being repressed

28

Rough ER

card image

o cell with a lot of rough ER are synthesizing proteins that need to be sequestered
 keep the ribosomes separate so they don’t affect the cell (for example: digestive enzymes might eat away at the cell if they are exposed prematurely)
 ribosomes are injected into rough ER as they are being made

29

Golgi Apparatus

card image

packages many proteins into one container and holds them
Package proteins that were made in ribosomes and sends them off in secretory vessels for the rest of the cell/body

30

smooth ER

card image

detoxifies drugs, makes fats (lipid synthesis), reduces alcohol and turns it into fat, so excessive drinking turns your whole liver into fat

31

ribosomes

card image

Pancreas cells release digestive enzymes, needed for digestion
Groups amino acid chains together to make proteins
found stored in rough ER, packaged by the golgi apparatus

32

mitochondria

card image

synthesize ATP

33

lysosomes

card image

membrane bound organelles that recycle old cell components
 many lysosomal storage diseases are fatal because people cannot get rid of toxic waste so it builds up and kills the cells

34
card image

Name the organelles

A= Golgi
B= Rough ER
C=Smooth ER
D= Mitochondrion
E= Ribosomes

35
card image

name the phases of mitosis

interphase
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telephase

36

microvilli

on the surface of epithelial cells to increase surface area in places that need to absorb
• in gut and kidney (absorptive areas)
• little and stubby- hard to see on the surface (too packed together and all the same height)

37

cilia

card image

have long molecular motors to beat and push things along
• move mucus along respiratory tract and out of the trachea and bronchi
• female reproductive tract to move the egg through the filopian tubes

38

epithelium

Covers surfaces, lines cavities, forms glands.

Cells and tissue show polarity: top (apical surface- might have surface specializations like cilia or microvilli) differs from bottom (basal surface- rests on a basement membrane).

This tissue shows the most rapid turnover of all tissues, therefore most prone to cancer.

Epithelia are avascular (lack blood vessels).

39

types of cell junctions

 tight junctions form a seal between cells- cells lining the stomach
• plasma membranes from opposing cells actually seal the cells together to prevent leakage
 gap junctions are for communication where substances can diffuse through holes (bone cells)
 desmosomes- mechanical function, helps cells stick together, kinda like Velcro (skin, heart- under a lot of mechanical stress)

40

simple epithelia

card image

 simple squamous epithelium- single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane
• in lungs- need a really thin layer for gas exchange
• lining blood vessels- need to be smooth or blood clots will form

 simple columnar epitelium
• good for absorption and secretion (microvilli and/or cilia)
• tall, column shaped, lined up with each other

41

stratified epithelium

card image
42

connective tissue

card image

cells (lymphocytes and fibroblasts) and fibers (collagen and elastic fibers) dispersed in an extracellular matrix

highly vascular

types: ordinary connective tissue (beneath basement membrane in all epithelium), tendons and ligaments, bone and cartilage, adipose tissue (stores energy in unlimited amounts), blood

43

loose connective tissue types

card image

areolar (ordinary)- beneath epithelium: binds epithelium to underlying tissues and allows nutrients to diffuse to epithelial cells

reticular- liver, spleen, lymph nodes: forms delicate support (framework, made brome more loosely bound collagen) for these soft organs

adipose- under the skin and surrounding organs: stores lipids for fuel and thermal insulation and cushions organs

44
card image

name the tissue type and structures indicated by the arrows

adipose tissue
arrows are nucleus of adipocyte

45
card image

name the types of tissues

a= Dense connective tissue
b= adipose tissue

46
card image

name the tissue in the brackets

loose connective tissue

47
card image

label the numbers (kidney)

1= simple cuboidal epithelium
2= apical surface of a cell
3= lumen of kidney tubule
4= nucleus of a simple cuboidal cell

48
card image

label the numbers (small intestine)

1=microvilli on the apical side of the cell
2= nucleus of a cell
3= simple columnar epithelium
4= connective tissue

49
card image

label the numbers (esophagus)

1= nucleus of a squamous epithelial cell
2= stratified squamous epithelium
3= nucleus of a cell in the basal layer of the epithelium
4= connective tissue

50
card image

label the numbers

1= nucleus of a transitional epithelial cell in the apical layer
2= nucleus of a transitional epithelial cell in the basal layer
3= transitional epithelium
4= connective tissue

51
card image

label the numbers (trachea)

1= nucleus of a ciliated columnar epithelial cell
2= cilia on the apical side of a columnar cell
3= pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
4= connective tissue

52
card image

label the numbers and name the tissue

areolar connective tissue
1= collagen fiber
2= elastic fiber
3= connective tissue cells (fibroblasts and lymphocytes)

53
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

reticular connective tissue
1= reticular cell
2= reticular fiber

54
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

dense regular connective tissue forming tendons
1= fibroblast
2= collagen fiber bundle

55
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

dense irregular connective tissue skin
1= fibroblast
2= collagen fiber bundles running in different directions
3= parallel the collagen fiber bundles

56
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

hyaline cartilage (trachea)
1= extracellular matrix
2= lacuna
3= nucleus of chondrocyte

57
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

elastic cartilage (ear)
1= lacuna
2= nucleus of chondrocyte
3= elastic fibers

58

types of cartilage

Hyaline- cells in an extracellular matrix, collagen with proteins that bind to water, ends of ribs, trachea, and long bones, because its smooth

Elastic- flexible,provides support, ear

fibrocartilage- intervertebral discs: cushions in between the vertebrae

59
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

card image

compact (cortical) bone
1= lamella
2= canaliculus
3= lacuna
4= central canal

60
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

cardiac muscle tissue
1= width of cardiac muscle fiber
2= nucleus
3=branches of cardiac muscle fiber
4= intercalated discs

little lines are desmosomes

61
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

skeletal muscle fibers
1= width of individual muscle fiber
2= nucleus
3= striation

62

types of muscle

Skeletal- for bones (sometimes skin), allows movement, voluntary control, striated

Cardiac- striated muscle found in the heart, cells are connected by gap junctions for communication (tissue goes into fibrillation if the cells do not communicate properly) and desmosomes (cells are under high mechanical stress), regulated by the CNS

Smooth- network of cells connected by gap junctions (allows a lot of communication to function smoothly), hollow organs, blood vessels

63
card image

label the tissue and the numbers and describe it

nervous tissue
1= processes
2= cell body of a mulitpolar neuron
3= nucleus

64
card image

name the structure and describe it

neuron

o very active (high euchromatin to heterochromatin ratio), polarized cells (receiving and transmitting ends)

65
card image

name the structure and describe it

nerve ganglion- collections of nerve cells

66
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

skin
1= derma papillae
2= epidermis
3= papillary layer of the dermis (thin collagen)
4= reticular layer of the dermis (thick collagen)
5= hypodermis

67
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers
describe each layer

epidermis in thick skin

1= stratum corneum- waterproof, protective layer that is very thick (particularly in the soles of the feet and hands)

2= stratum lucidum- artifact layer

3= stratum granulosum- packages karatohyalin (from keratinocytes) into granules and chokes off the cell and kills it and the cell becomes part of the stratum corneum

4= stratum spinosum- spiny layer, held together by desmosomes, if there is a disease with desmosomes this layer forms blisters because skin can not hold together

5= stratum basale-A thin (single) layer of cells along the basement membrane which is where mitosis (cell division) occurs

68

functions of the integumentary system

Physical protection- keeps moisture in, stops bacteria/other contaminants from entering
Thermoregulatory- keeps you warm, shunts blood from the surface to the internal organs when in the cold, sweats to cool
Need sun to contact skin and convert vitamin D to its active form
Elaborate sensory system to feel things
Strong immune system on skin

69
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

epidermis
1= stratum cornueum
2= stratum granulosum
3= stratum spinosum
4= stratum basale

70
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

thin skin with accessory structures
1= hair shaft
2= hair root
3= sebaceous gland (secretes oils that coat the hair in the follicle)
4= arrector pili muscle
5= hair follicle
6= hair bulb
7= eccrine sweat gland (reaches up to the skin's surface)
8= papilla of hair
9= apocrine sweat gland (secretion is deposited on the distal end of the hair root)

71
card image

name the tissue and label the numbers

thin skin and accessory structures
1=sebaceous gland
2= hair follicle
3= hair root
4= hair bulbs
5= papilla of hair

72

skin cells

Keratinocytes- main cell type, make up most of the epidermis, keratin is responsible for the orange color in skin

Melanocytes- produce melanin which contributes to skin color (darkness of skin), have processes that reach below the basement membrane (where blood vessels and other structures are, melanoma skin cancer), everyone has the same number of melanocytes but skin color depends on the maturity of the melanocytes (more melanin steps in production= darker cells) and who much melanin is taken up by the keratinocytes, comes from neural crests

Langerhans cell- antigen presenting cell (belongs to the immune system), recognizes foreign bodies and reports back to the immune system, part of the immune function of the skin

73
card image

name and describe the structure circled

makes oil and empties into the hair follicles and lubricates hair
o only in thin skin

74
card image

name and describe the structure circled

Sweat gland is coiled and releases fluids and some waste products through a duct to the skin surface to cool the skin
occurs in all skin (not just thick or thin)

75

ABCD Melanoma Detection

A=Asymmetry- one half unlike the other half
B=Border- irregular or poorly defined border
C= Varies from one shade to another. Not just brown or tan. Can be shades of red, white, or blue
D=Diameter- Unusually large diameter

76

functions of bone as a tissue

reservoir for calcium that is needed for muscle contraction

production of blood cells in the bone marrow (blood cells need to be replaced every 120 days)

77

functions of the skeleton

Supports body against pull of gravity
Attaches to skeletal muscles to permit movement
Protects soft body parts (like organs, brain)
Divides body into cavities or spaces

78
card image

label the parts of a long bone

1= Proximal Epiphysis
2= epiphyseal plate (growth plate, metaphysis)
3= Diaphysis
4= distal epiphysis
5= spongy (trabecular) bone
6= compact (cortical) bone
7= marrow cavity
8= articular surface

79

Osteoclasts/Osteroblasts

Osteoblasts (immature cell)- helps rebuild/remodel bones
Osteoclasts move along through bone and remove bone that needs remodeled
Osteoblasts and clasts are coupled to rebuild bone (healthy people have a good ratio of both cells, people in bed rest or in space end up with too many osteoclasts)

80
card image

label all of the features (some terms may be used twice)

1= spongy (trabecular) bone
2= trabeculae of spongy bone covered in endosteum
3= concentric lamellae
4= blood vessels
5= canaliculi
6= lacuna
7= osteocyte
8= periosteum
9= central canal
10= perforating canal
11= compact (cortical) bone
12= osteon (haversian systems)
13= compact bone
14= spongy bone
15= periosteum

81

intramembranous bone development

flat bones in the skull

bone tissue develops directly from primitive connective tissue (so that is is stretchy enough to form around the brain as it grows, then turns into bone)

bones come from the neural crest (migration problems like fetal alcohol syndrome affect facial bone development)

82

endochondral bone development

Most bones besides the skull, including long bones of appendicular skeleton

The growth of long bones occurs at the epiphyseal plate in between the cartilage and diaphysis where Cartilage cells divide and stack then form into bone

All cartilage is replaced by bone when growth ends, except the ends of long bones (articular cartilage)

cartilage has no blood supply, blood vessels move into the cartilage and vascularize it and bring in osteoblasts to turn the cartilage to bone

83
card image

label all the features (lateral view)

1=parietal bone
2= coronal suture
3= squamous suture
4= temporal bone (squamous part is very thin and easy to damage)
5= lamboid suture
6= occipital bone
7= frontal bone
8= sphenoid bone (very thin and easy to damage)
9= ethmoid bone
10= lacrimal bone
11= nasal bone
12= zygomatic bone
13= maxilla
14= mandible

84
card image

label the features of the skull (lateral view)

1=coronal suture
2= parietal bone
3= squamous suture
4= temporal bone (squamous part is very thin and easy to damage, petrous portion is thick to protect your inner ear)
5= lamboid suture
6= occipital bone
7= frontal bone
8= sphenoid bone (very thin and easy to damage)
9= ethmoid bone
10= lacrimal bone
11= nasal bone
12= zygomatic bone
13= maxilla
14= mandible
15= hyoid bone (elevates and compresses the larynx, but does not articulate with other bones and plays a role in speaking, swallowing)

85
card image

label the features of the skull (superior view)

1= frontal bone
2= coronal suture
3= parietal bone
4= sagittal suture
5= lamboid suture
6= occipital bone

86
card image

label the features of the skull (inferior view)

1= maxilla
2= vomer
3= sphenoid bone
4= occipital bone
5= zygomatic bone
6= palatine bone
7= parietal bone

87
card image

label the features of the skull (superior view of the floor of the cranium)

1= parietal bone
2= occipital bone
3= frontal bone
4= ethmoid bone (tumor causes loss of sense of smell, part of the nasal septum inside the nose)
5= sphenoid bone (where the pituitary gland sits)
6= temporal bone
7= lamboid suture

88
card image

label the features of the skull (anterior view)

1= parietal bone
2= sphenoid bone
3= ethmoid bone (tumor causes loss of sense of smell, part of the nasal septum inside the nose)
4= lacrimal bone
5= inferior nasal concha
6= vomer
7= frontal bone
8= temporal bone
9= nasal bone
10= zygomatic bone
11= maxilla
12= mandible

89
card image

label all the surface markings

1= supraorbital foramen
2= orbit of the eye
3= inferior orbital fissure
4= perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (helps make up the nasal septum)
5= mental foramen
6= supraorbital margin
7= superior orbital fissure
8= middle nasal concha

90
card image

label all the surface markings

1= external auditory meatus
2= mastoid process
3= lacrimal process
4= zygomatic process of the temporal bone
5= condylar process
6= coronoid process
7= ramus of the mandible
8- body of the mandible

91
card image

label all the surface markings

1= palatine process of the maxilla
2= palatine process
3= hard palate
4= ptergoid process
5= foramen ovale
6= jugular foramen (for jugular vein)
7= occipital condyle
8= hypoglossal foramen (should be underneath the occipital condyle, above the jugular foramen)
9= mandibular fossa
10= foramen lacerum
11= carotid foramen (carotid artery)
12= stylomastoid process
13= mastoid process (has mastoid air cells to make the skull lighter. A middle ear infection can spread to those air cells and cause meningitis)
14= foramen magnum (for the spinal cord to innervate the brain)

92
card image

label all the surface markings

1= crista galli
2= olfactory foramina
3= cribriform plate
4= sella tursica (where the pituitary gland sits)
5= foramen ovale
6= internal auditory meatus (tumor causes hearing damage)
7= foramen magnum (for the spinal cord to innervate the brain)
8= lesser wing of the sphenoid
9= optic foramen (where the optic nerve passes through, damage causes vision loss)
10= greater wing of the sphenoid
11= foramen rotundum
12= foramen lacrum
13= jugular foramen

93
card image

label and describe the paranasal sinuses and define paranasal sinuses

paranasal sinus- air filled spaces that are lined wit epithelium and secrete fluid

1= frontal sinus (drains through the nose)
2= ethmoid sinus (includes the superior and middle conchi)
3= sphenoid sinus (surgeons go through the sphenoid sinus to reach the pituitary to remove tumors)
4= maxillary sinus (largest sinus, upper teeth are in the maxilla and dental infections can spread to the brain via the maxillary sinus then the orbit)

94
card image

label the nasal septum

1= perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
2= septal cartilage
3= vomer

95
card image

label the components and give the direction of curvature for 6, 7, 8, and 9

1= intervertebral discs
2= intervertebral foramen
6= cervical-7, anterior curvature
7= thoracic- 12, articulate with ribs, posterior curvature
8= lumbar- 5, anterior curvature
9- saccral- 5 fused vertebra, posterior curvature (below the sacrum is the coccyx which has 2-4 vertebrae)

96
card image

label the parts of the typical vertebra

1= facet of superior articular process
2= vertebral foramen
3= facet for head of rib
4= spinal cord
5= spinous process
6= transverse process
7= vertebral arch: lamina (saw through the lamina to perform a spinal fusion)
8= pedicle
9= body

97
card image

name and label the vertebra

atlas (1st cervical vertebra)- allows up/down “yes” motion
1= superior articular facet
2= transverse foramen
3= transverse process

98
card image

label and name the vertebra

axis (2nd cervical vertebra)-axis- allows side to side “no” motion- body has a ‘dens’

4= lamina
5= Dens
6= spinous process

99
card image

label and name the vertebra

typical cervical vertebra
7= body
8= transverse process
9= bifurcated spinous process
10= pedicle

100
card image

name and label the vertebra

thoracic vertebra
1= transverse process
2= facet for the articular part of the tubercle of ribs
3= superior articular facet
4= superior demifacet
5= facet for the articular part of a tubercle of rib
6= slanted spinous process
7= superior demifacet
8= inferior demifacet

101
card image

name and label the vertebra

lumbar vertebra
1= lamina
2= superior articular process
3= transverse process
4= vertebral foramen
5= body
6= hatchet-shaped spinous process
7= inferior articular facet

102
card image

label each feature

1= intervertebral foramen
2= nucleus pulposus
3= annulus fibrosus
4= intervertebral disc (made of fibrocartilage)
5= herniation
6= nucleus pulposus
7= annulus fibrosus

103

name the structure and label each feature

sacrum and coccyx
1= sacral ala
2= base of sacrum
3= sacral promontory
4= sacral foramen
5= coccyx
6= sacral canal
7= superior articular facet
8= auricular surface
9= sacral hiatus

104
card image

label and describe each disorder (left to right)

(left to right)
Kyphosis- abnormal thoracic curvature
Lordosis- found in obese and pregnant people, over pronunciation of the lumbar curvature
Scoliosis- correctable in children, sideways curvature of the spine, harder to correct when growth ends, affects the placement of the internal organs

105
card image

label each structure

1= suprasternal notch (jugular notch)
2= manubrium
3= body of sternum
4= xiphoid process
5= sternum
6= costal cartilage
7= sternal angle
8= true ribs
9= floating ribs
10= false ribs

106
card image

name and describe the bone and features

clavicle: keeps the upper extremity away from the trunk so the extremity can move
most commonly broken bone in the body
articulates with the scapula

1= acromial end
2= sternal end

107
card image

name the structure and label the components

scapula
3= acromion
4= coracoid process
5= glenoid cavity
6= lateral (axillary) border
7= subscapular fossa
8= medial (vertebral border)
9= supraspinous fossa
10= infraspinous fossa
11= acromion
12= spine
13= glenoid cavity

108

shoulder: description and injuries

Labrum (cartilage) helps deepen the glenoid cavity (lateral cavity) which is fairly shallow to allow a wide range of mobility, and to increase the stability
Rotator cuff muscles all attach from the scapula to the humerus and allows for rotation and circumduction

separation: between the clavicle and either the acromion process of the scapula and/or the coracoid process of the scapula

dislocation: between the humerus and the scapula
 when the humerus goes out of the glenoid cavity (happens inferiorly most often)

109
card image

name the bone and label components

humerus
1=greater tubercle
2= intertubercular groove
3= lesser tubercle
4= lateral epicondyle
5= capitulum
6= head
7= anatomical neck
8= deltoid tuberosity
9= coronoid fossa
10= medial epicondyle
11= trochlea
12= olecranon fossa
13= medial epicondyle
14= lateral epicondyle

110
card image

name the bones and label the components

radius (lateral- thumb side) and ulna (medial- pinky side)
1= head of the radius
2= styloid process of the radius
3= olecranon process
4= trochlear notch
5= coronoid process
6= radial notch (on ulna)
7= styloid process of ulna

styloid processes help to form the wrist joint

111

radial and ulnar nerves

radial nerve runs along the humerus- humerus break leads to wrist drop (extensor damage, everything it flexed)

ulnar nerve runs along the medial side of the humerus- bumping the medial epicondyle of the humerus causes the "funny bone" tingling on the medial side of the hand

112
card image

label the bones

1= carpals
2= metacarpals
3= proximal phalanx V
4= middle phalanx V
5= distal phalanx V
6= capitate (most common fracture wrist bone during a fall)

113
card image

name the bone and label the components

os coxa- 3 fused bones (ilium, ischium, pubis), help support body weight and are part of the pelvis

1= ilium
2= posterior superior iliac spine
3= posterior inferior iliac spine
4= greater sciatic notch
5= ischium
6= ischium spine
7= lesser sciatic notch
8= obturator foramen
9= ischial tuberosity
10= iliac crest
11= anterior superior iliac spine
12= anterior inferior iliac spine
13= acetabulum
14= pubis

114
card image

name the structure and label the components

female (left) and male (right) pelvis- Easiest way to tell the difference between male and female pelvis is by the angle between the pubic bones (>100 degrees in females, <90 in males, models may be more exaggerated)

1= iliac crest
2= ilium
3= ischial spine
4= pelvic brim
5= pubic symphysis
6= false pelvis (holds intestines, bordered by the pelvic brim)
7= true pelvis (holds reproductive organs and bladder)
8= pubis
9= ischial spine
10= fake pelvis
11= sacroliliac joint
12= sacrum
13= coccyx
14= true pelvis (holds some reproductive organs, not the testes or penis)
15= pubis

115
card image

name and describe and label the bone

femur- femoral neck is usually what fractures in falls- tends to thin out with osteoporosis
o greater and lesser trochanters are for muscle attachment

1= head of femur
2= greater trochanter
3= neck
4= lesser trochanter
5= medial epicondyle
6= medial condyle
7= linea aspera
8= lateral epicondyle
9= lateral condyle

116
card image

name the bones and label the components

tibia (medial) and fibula (lateral)

1= lateral condyle
2= head of fibula
3= fibula
4= lateral malleolus
5= medial condyle
6= tibial tuberosity
7= anterior border (crest)
8= medial malleolus
top flat part of tibia is the tibial plateau

common fibular nerve goes along the back of the keed and causes "foot drop" when damaged. Most commonly damaged nerve

117
card image

label the structures

1= calcaneus
2= talus
3= proximal phalanx II
4= middle phalanx II
5= distal phalanx II
6= tarsals
7= metatarsals
8= phalanges

118
card image

label the structures

9= calcaneus
10= tibia
11= fibula
12= talus
13= tarsals
14= metatarsals
15= phalanges

119
card image

label the synovial joint

1= articular bone
2= synovial fluid
3= synovial cavity
4= articular cartilage
5= fibrous capsule
6= synovial membrane
7= articular capsule

120
card image

name and label the joint

knee joint- hinge joint, small amount of rotation

1= articular cartilage of the femur
2= lateral (fibular) collateral ligament (gap between ligament and joint)
3= lateral meniscus
4= posterior cruciate ligament
5= anterior cruciate ligament
6= medial meniscus
7= medial collateral ligament (no gap between ligament and joint)
8= patellar ligament
9= fibrous capsule
10= articular cartilage
11= synovial fluid
12= bursae
13= infrapatellar fat pad
14= patellar ligament

121

elbow injuries

hinge joint
Note that “tennis elbow” is due to trauma to the extensor tendon that attaches to the lateral epicondyle of the
humerus

122

knee injuries

“Unhappy triad”: Damage to medial meniscus, medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament

Anterior drawer syndrome: Damage to ACL allows tibia to slide forward.

Posterior drawer syndrome: Damage to PCL allows tibia to slide backward.

123

ankle injuries

o Most commonly damaged joint
o Inversion injury (rolling your ankle) is most common- stretch the lateral ligaments (between the fibula and the talus (talofibular ligaments, or between the fibula and the calcaneus)
 If asked about a inversion injury, make sure the fibular is included (lateral side of your foot)
o Eversion injuries are rare