Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Flashcards


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1

Microbes are not responsible for:

antibody production

2

The cell theory states that_______are made up of cells.

All living things

3

In Pasteur's swan neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was two-fold. The curves allowed entry of air, and yet excluded:

Airborne bacteria

4

Pasteurization was first developed to kill_______in wine.

Spoilage bacteria

5

Robert Koch's studies on Bacillus anthracis established a sequence of experimental steps to prove that microbes:

Cause disease

6

An exposure to________protects against infection with smallpox.

Cowpox

7

Ehrlich searched for a/an___________. This is a chemical that would hunt down and destroy a pathogen without harming the infected host.

Magic bullet

8

How would you recognize an antibiotic-producing soil bacterium on a plate crowded with other bacteria? The bacterial colony producing the antibiotic would be:

Surrounded by a clear area

9

The usefulness of antibiotics is hampered by:

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

10

All life can be classified into three domains:

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

11

Which is not a characteristic of bacteria?

Bacteria have cell walls containing chitin.

12

All of the following are eukaryotes except:

Bacteria

13

Which of the following is not true of the archaea?

They are commonly associated with human disease.

14

Using microbes to clean up pollutants is called:

Bioremediation

15

Placing the DNA from an animal cell into the genome of a bacterium will allow the bacterium to produce an animal product. This new piece of DNA is referred to as:

Recombinant DNA

16

Which of the following properties are true of both bacteria and viruses?

Both use a molecule of nucleic acid to determine heredity

17

Which is not a characteristic of the normal microbiota?

Regularly associated with disease symptoms

18

Increased human exposure to new and unusual infectious agents in areas that are undergoing ecologic changes accounts for the:

emergence of new infectious disease

19

Mad cow disease is caused by a prion which is an infectious:

Protein

20

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is transmitted by:

Person-to-person contact

21

Robert Hooke's observation of the individual units in thin layers of cork tissue led to the development of______theory.

cell

22

Pasteur, Bassi, and Lister made discoveries showing the relationship between microbes and diseases. These discoveries led to the_______.

germ theory

23

Lister knew that carbolic acid (phenol) kills bacteria. He used it as the first_______.

disinfectant

24

The protection from disease provided by vaccination is called______.

immunity

25

One of the biggest challenges for immunologists today is learning how the immune system might be stimulated to ward off the virus responsible for __________, a disease that destroys the immune system.

AIDS

26

The __________ are unicellular, eukaryotic microbes that move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia

protozoa

27

Methods that prevent contamination of materials by unwanted microbes are called __________ techniques.

aseptic

28

__________ involves the ability afforded by genetic engineering to insert a missing gene or replace a defective gene in a human cell.

Gene therapy

29

__________ disease is one in which pathogens invade a susceptible host.

Infectious

30

Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and algae are all examples of __________.

microorganisms

31

Microorganisms

minute living things that are to small to be seen with the unaided eye

32

Devised the system for naming organisms

Carolus Linnaeus

33

Devised cell theory, said life smallest structures looked like little boxes

Robert Hooke

34

Methanogens, Extreme Halophilic, Extreme Thermophilic

Three main groups of Archaea

35

Rod shaped bacteria

Bacilli

36

Developed the first vaccine, vaccinated children from small pox

Edward Jenner

37

First microbiologist, discovered and viewed bacteria and protozoa

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

38

Ball shaped bacteria

Cocci

39

Small internal structures that do a job for the cell

Organelles

40

English bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881-1955

Alexander Fleming

41

polysaccharides

chitin

42

Spiral shaped bacteria

Spirilli

43

Three shapes of bacteria

Bacilli, Cocci, Spirilli

44

Likes salty conditions

Extreme Halophilic

45

Likes hot conditions

Extreme Thermophilic

46

Two types of Fungi:

Yeasts and Molds

47

Visible masses on mold composed from hyphae

Mycelia

48

Fungi, multicellular, forms mycelia

Mold

49

Long filaments in mycelia

Hyphae

50

False feet

Pseudopods

51

Short appendages

Cilia

52

Living cells come from living cells

Biogenenis

53

Life comes from non-living matter

Spontaneous Generation

54

Tested two jars with raw meat, one with a gauze for air and the other without a lid or gauze, the jar without the lid or gauze developed maggots

Francesco Redi

55

Disproved spontaneous generation, developed aseptic techniques to prevent contamination, discovered how fermentation and pasteurization work

Louis Pasteur

56

Heating to kill bacteria that causes spoilage

Pasteurization

57

Yeasts convert sugars into alcohol in the absence of air

Fermantation

58

Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths, Viruses

Eukaryotic Microorganisms

59

Said cells arise from preexisting cells

Rudolf Virchow

60

Established the system of nomenclature for naming organisms

Carolus Linnaeus

61

devised a system of classification for grouping organisms into domains

Carl Woese

62

laid the groundwork for development of the cell theory

Robert Hooke

63

was the first to observe microorganisms using a simple microscope

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

64

demonstrated that maggots appeared on decaying meat only when flies were able to lay eggs on the meat

Francesco Redi

65

claimed that microorganisms could arise spontaneously from heated nutrient broth; claimed a
“vital force” was necessary for spontaneous generation

John Needham

66

suggested that Needham’s results were due to microorganisms in the air entering his broth

Lazzaro Spallanzani

67

showed the importance of oxygen to life

Anton Laurent Lavoisier

68

introduced the concept of biogenesis: living cells can arise only from preexisting cells

Rudolf Virchow

69

demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air everywhere and offered proof of biogenesis;
discoveries led to the development of aseptic techniques used in laboratory and medical procedures to prevent contamination by microorganisms; found that yeast ferment sugars to alcohol and that bacteria can oxidize the alcohol to acetic acid; technique of pasteurization is named after him

Louis Pasteur

70

originally proved one silkworm disease was caused by a fungus; he and Pasteur later found that a more recent silkworm infection was caused by a protozoan

Agostino Bassi

71

demostrated that physicians who did not disinfect their hands routinely transmitted infections

Ignaz Semmelweis

72

used phenol red (carbolic acid) to successfully treat surgical wounds thereby proving a connection with microbes and surgical infection

Joseph Lister

73

proved that microorganisms cause disease; he used a
sequence of procedures, now called Koch’s postulates, that are used today to prove that a particular microorganism causes a particular disease

Robert Koch

74

demonstrated that inoculation with cowpox material provides humans with immunity to smallpox

Edward Jenner

75

introduced an arsenic-containing chemical called
salvarsan to treat syphilis

Paul Ehrlich

76

observed that the Penicillium fungus inhibited the growth of a bacterial culture. He named the active ingredient penicillin

Alexander Fleming

77

Researchers who studies biodegradation of toxic wastes.

Biotechnology and Microbial Ecology

78

Researchers who studies the causative agent of Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Virology

79

Researchers who studies the production of human proteins by bacteria

Biotechnology, Microbial Genetics and Microbial physiology

80

Researchers who studies the symptoms of AIDS

Immunology

81

Researchers who studies the production of toxins by E.coli

Microbial physiology

82

Researchers who studies the life cyle of Crptosporidium

Microbial ecology

83

Researchers who develops gene therapy for a disease

Microbial genetics

84

Researchers who studies the fungus Candida albicans

Mycology

85

Not composed of cells

Viruses

86

Cell wall made of chitin

Fungi

87

Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

Bacteria

88

Cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic

Algae

89

Unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall

Protozoa

90

Multicellular animals

Helminths

91

Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall

Archaea

92

Discovered how DNA controls proteins synthesis in a cell

Jacob and Monod

93

Discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another

Lederberg and Tatum

94

First to characterize a virus

Stanley

95

Observed that viruses are filterable

Iwanowski

96

Proved that DNA are is the hereditary material

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty

97

Showed that gene codes for enzymes

Beadle and Tatum

98

Spliced animal DNA to bacterial DNA

Berg

99

Used bacteria to produce acetone

Weizmann

100

Used the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent

Ehrich

101

Proposed a classification system for streptococci based on antigens in their cell walls

Lancefield