Microbes are not responsible for:
The cell theory states that_______are made up of cells.
All living things
In Pasteur's swan neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was two-fold. The curves allowed entry of air, and yet excluded:
Pasteurization was first developed to kill_______in wine.
Robert Koch's studies on Bacillus anthracis established a sequence of experimental steps to prove that microbes:
An exposure to________protects against infection with smallpox.
Ehrlich searched for a/an___________. This is a chemical that would hunt down and destroy a pathogen without harming the infected host.
How would you recognize an antibiotic-producing soil bacterium on a plate crowded with other bacteria? The bacterial colony producing the antibiotic would be:
Surrounded by a clear area
The usefulness of antibiotics is hampered by:
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
All life can be classified into three domains:
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Which is not a characteristic of bacteria?
Bacteria have cell walls containing chitin.
All of the following are eukaryotes except:
Which of the following is not true of the archaea?
They are commonly associated with human disease.
Using microbes to clean up pollutants is called:
Placing the DNA from an animal cell into the genome of a bacterium will allow the bacterium to produce an animal product. This new piece of DNA is referred to as:
Which of the following properties are true of both bacteria and viruses?
Both use a molecule of nucleic acid to determine heredity
Which is not a characteristic of the normal microbiota?
Regularly associated with disease symptoms
Increased human exposure to new and unusual infectious agents in areas that are undergoing ecologic changes accounts for the:
emergence of new infectious disease
Mad cow disease is caused by a prion which is an infectious:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is transmitted by:
Robert Hooke's observation of the individual units in thin layers of cork tissue led to the development of______theory.
Pasteur, Bassi, and Lister made discoveries showing the relationship between microbes and diseases. These discoveries led to the_______.
Lister knew that carbolic acid (phenol) kills bacteria. He used it as the first_______.
The protection from disease provided by vaccination is called______.
One of the biggest challenges for immunologists today is learning how the immune system might be stimulated to ward off the virus responsible for __________, a disease that destroys the immune system.
The __________ are unicellular, eukaryotic microbes that move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia
Methods that prevent contamination of materials by unwanted microbes are called __________ techniques.
__________ involves the ability afforded by genetic engineering to insert a missing gene or replace a defective gene in a human cell.
__________ disease is one in which pathogens invade a susceptible host.
Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and algae are all examples of __________.
minute living things that are to small to be seen with the unaided eye
Devised the system for naming organisms
Devised cell theory, said life smallest structures looked like little boxes
Methanogens, Extreme Halophilic, Extreme Thermophilic
Three main groups of Archaea
Rod shaped bacteria
Developed the first vaccine, vaccinated children from small pox
First microbiologist, discovered and viewed bacteria and protozoa
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Ball shaped bacteria
Small internal structures that do a job for the cell
English bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881-1955
Spiral shaped bacteria
Three shapes of bacteria
Bacilli, Cocci, Spirilli
Likes salty conditions
Likes hot conditions
Two types of Fungi:
Yeasts and Molds
Visible masses on mold composed from hyphae
Fungi, multicellular, forms mycelia
Long filaments in mycelia
Living cells come from living cells
Life comes from non-living matter
Tested two jars with raw meat, one with a gauze for air and the other without a lid or gauze, the jar without the lid or gauze developed maggots
Disproved spontaneous generation, developed aseptic techniques to prevent contamination, discovered how fermentation and pasteurization work
Heating to kill bacteria that causes spoilage
Yeasts convert sugars into alcohol in the absence of air
Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths, Viruses
Said cells arise from preexisting cells
Established the system of nomenclature for naming organisms
devised a system of classification for grouping organisms into domains
laid the groundwork for development of the cell theory
was the first to observe microorganisms using a simple microscope
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
demonstrated that maggots appeared on decaying meat only when flies were able to lay eggs on the meat
claimed that microorganisms could arise spontaneously from heated nutrient broth; claimed a
“vital force” was necessary for spontaneous generation
suggested that Needham’s results were due to microorganisms in the air entering his broth
showed the importance of oxygen to life
Anton Laurent Lavoisier
introduced the concept of biogenesis: living cells can arise only from preexisting cells
demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air everywhere and offered proof of biogenesis;
discoveries led to the development of aseptic techniques used in laboratory and medical procedures to prevent contamination by microorganisms; found that yeast ferment sugars to alcohol and that bacteria can oxidize the alcohol to acetic acid; technique of pasteurization is named after him
originally proved one silkworm disease was caused by a fungus; he and Pasteur later found that a more recent silkworm infection was caused by a protozoan
demostrated that physicians who did not disinfect their hands routinely transmitted infections
used phenol red (carbolic acid) to successfully treat surgical wounds thereby proving a connection with microbes and surgical infection
proved that microorganisms cause disease; he used a
sequence of procedures, now called Koch’s postulates, that are used today to prove that a particular microorganism causes a particular disease
demonstrated that inoculation with cowpox material provides humans with immunity to smallpox
introduced an arsenic-containing chemical called
salvarsan to treat syphilis
observed that the Penicillium fungus inhibited the growth of a bacterial culture. He named the active ingredient penicillin
Researchers who studies biodegradation of toxic wastes.
Biotechnology and Microbial Ecology
Researchers who studies the causative agent of Ebola hemorrhagic fever
Researchers who studies the production of human proteins by bacteria
Biotechnology, Microbial Genetics and Microbial physiology
Researchers who studies the symptoms of AIDS
Researchers who studies the production of toxins by E.coli
Researchers who studies the life cyle of Crptosporidium
Researchers who develops gene therapy for a disease
Researchers who studies the fungus Candida albicans
Not composed of cells
Cell wall made of chitin
Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic
Unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall
Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall
Discovered how DNA controls proteins synthesis in a cell
Jacob and Monod
Discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
Lederberg and Tatum
First to characterize a virus
Observed that viruses are filterable
Proved that DNA are is the hereditary material
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
Showed that gene codes for enzymes
Beadle and Tatum
Spliced animal DNA to bacterial DNA
Used bacteria to produce acetone
Used the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent
Proposed a classification system for streptococci based on antigens in their cell walls