urinary exam

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1

The renal corpuscle consists of:

the glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

2

Sympathetic nerves from the renal plexus are distributed to the:

renal blood vessels.

3

Which of the following lists the nephron regions in the correct order of fluid flow?

glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

4

Which of the following lists the vessels in the correct order of blood flow?

afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries

5

The main function of the kidneys is to

Regulate the composition of the blood and hence of the whole internal environment.

6

Bowman’s capsule is

A double-walled funnel surrounding a glomerulus

7

The unit excretory structure of the kidney is

The nephron

8

The part of a juxtamedullary nephron that is in the renal medulla is the:

loop of Henle.

9

The cells making up the proximal and distal convoluted tubules are:

simple cuboidal epithelial cells.

10

Podocytes are cells specialized for filtration that are found in the:

visceral layer of the glomerular capsule.

11

The surface of glomerular capillaries available for filtration is regulated by:

mesangial cells.

12

ALL of the following are factors in the glomerular filter EXCEPT :

microvilli.

13

If the diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole, then:

blood pressure in the glomerulus stays high.

14

Glomerular filtrate contains:

everything in blood except cells and proteins.

15

Filtration of blood in the glomeruli is promoted by:

blood hydrostatic pressure.

16

Which of the following pressures is highest in the renal corpuscle under normal circumstances?

glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure

17

An obstruction in the proximal convoluted tubule decreases glomerular filtration rate because:

hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule increases, which decreases net filtration pressure.

18

The function of the macula densa cells is to:

monitor NaCl concentration in the tubular fluid.

19

In the myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation:

smooth muscle in afferent arterioles triggers vasoconstriction to decrease GFR.

20

The function of atrial natriuretic peptide in renal autoregulation of GFR is to stimulate:

relaxation of glomerular mesangial cells.

21

If sympathetic stimulation to afferent and efferent arterioles decreases, then GFR:

increases because both vessels are less constricted

22

The most important function of the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus is to:

release renin in response to a drop in renal blood pressure or blood flow.

23

If there were an obstruction in the renal artery, one might expect to see:

Both A and B are correct.

24

As substances are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, they move from:

filtered fluid to epithelial cells, to intersitial fluid to peritubular capillaries.

25

The uptake of substances from the lumen of the kidney tubules if known as

Tubular reabsorption

26

Given the following conditions, glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure 75 mm Hg, capsular hydrostatic pressure 15 mm Hg, blood osmotic pressure 25 mm Hg, the effective filtration pressure would be _____mm Hg.

35.

27

Most reabsorption of substances from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the

Proximal tubule

28

Which of the following substances is normally almost completely reabsorbed by the tubules of the nephron?

Glucose

29

The transport maximum is the:

upper limit of reabsorption due to saturation of carrier systems.

30

Most water is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule by obligatory reabsorption , which means that:

water is "following" sodium and other ions/molecules to maintain osmotic balance.

31

Obligatory reabsorption of water occurs in the:

both A and D are correct.

32

Facultative reabsorption of water is regulated by:

ADH.

33

If sympathetic stimulation to afferent and efferent arterioles decreases, then GFR:

doesn't change because the vessels do not have receptors for sympathetic neurotransmitters.

34

Principal cells in the distal convoluted tubules:

respond to ADH and aldosterone.

35

The significance of secretion of ammonium (NH4+) ions by the tubule cells is:

it results from generation of new bicarbonate ions that can be reabsorbed to help maintain pH.

36

If the level of aldosterone in the blood increases, then:

more potassium is excreted in the urine.

37

The amount of potassium secreted by principal cells is increased by which of the following?

high levels of sodium ions in tubular fluid

38

A role of intercalated cells is to:

excrete hydrogen ions when pH is too low.

39

The action of ADH on principal cells is to:

increase insertion of aquaporin 2 vesicles into apical membranes.

40

Urine that is hypotonic to blood plasma is produced when:

levels of antidiuretic hormone are low.

41

The concentration of solutes in tubular fluid is greatest in the:

hairpin turn of the loop of Henle.

42

The renal clearance of a large protein such as albumin would be closest to which of the following values?

zero

43

The permeability of the collecting ducts to water is regulated by:

antidiuretic hormone.

44

The countercurrent mechanism in the loop of Henle builds and maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla. Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor.?

Chloride ions passively diffuse from the interstitial fluid into the thick portion of the ascending limb.

45

Cells that have receptors for aldosterone include:

cells in the distal convoluted tubules

46

The effect of aldosterone on the principal cells of the distal convoluted tubule is to:

increase the synthesis of sodium pumps.

47

The normal daily volume of urine produced is:

1000minus2000 ml.

48

Urea recycling in the renal medulla refers to the:

mechanism by which urea leaves the collecting duct and re enters the loop of Henle, thus helping to maintain the hypertonic conditions of the interstitial spaces.

49

Clearance refers to

The volume of plasma from which a substances is entirely removed per minute

50

Which of the following would be in the highest concentration in normal urine?

creatinine.

51

Tubular maximum

Proximal convoluted tubule

52

Countercurrant multiplier system

Loop of Henle

53

Aldosterone acts on

Distal convoluted tubule

54

Renin is associated with

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

55

Glomeruli are located in

Cortex of the kidney

56

Distal convoluted tubules are located in the

Cortex of the kidney

57

Loop of Henle is located in the

Medulla of the kidney

58

Ureter exits from the

Renal Hilus

59

Juxtaglomerular apparatus produces

Renin

60

Associated with the hypothalamus

Antidiuretic hormone

61

Causes reabsorption of water

Antidiuretic hormone

62

ACE is associated with

Angiotensin II

63

Used to measure glomerular filtration rate

Inulin

64

Catabolism of creatine phosphate from skeletal muscle

Creatinine

65

Parathyroid hormones acts upon

. Calcium

66

Breakdown product of proteins

Urea

67

Parathyroid hormone acts upon

Distal convoluted tubules

68

Maintains an osmotic gradient

Loop of Henle

69

Antidiuretic hormones acts on

Collecting duct

70

Acted upon by norepinephrine

Glomerulus

71

The kidneys help regulate blood pressure by secretion of the enzyme __________ and by adjusting __________.

renin; renal resistance

72

The kidneys release two hormones: __________, which helps regulate calcium homeostasis, and __________ , which increases red blood cell production.

calcitriol; erythropoietin

73

The functional units of the kidneys are the __________.

nephrons

74

Blood flows into afferent arterioles from __________.

interlobular arteries

75

The tubules of the juxtamedullary nephrons are served by special capillaries called __________.

vasa recta

76

Most renal nerves originate in the __________ ganglion, and their function is to regulate __________.

celiac; renal resistance and blood flow

77

Fluid flows from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle into the __________.

distal convoluted tubule

78

The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of two parts: the __________ that detects the concentration of tubular fluid, and the __________ that secrete renin.

macula densa; juxtaglomerular cells

79

The last portion of the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct are made up of __________ cells, which are the target cells for ADH and aldosterone, and __________ cells that have microvilli and help regulate acid base balance.

principal; intercalated

80

In tubular reabsorption, substances move from __________ to __________.

tubular fluid; blood

81

The footlike processes of podocytes are called __________ and the spaces between the processes are called __________.

pedicels; filtration slits

82

Glomerular endothelial cells are leaky because they have large pores called ___________.

fenestrations

83

Norepinephrine causes __________ of afferent arterioles, which causes GFR to __________.

vasoconstriction; decrease

84

Angiotensin II causes __________ of the afferent arteriole and __________ of the efferent arteriole, which causes GFR to __________.

vasoconstriction; vasoconstriction; decrease

85

The hormone __________ increases capillary surface area available for filtration by causing relaxation of __________.

ANP; mesangial cells

86

If there is a decrease in the delivery of sodium and chloride ions to macula densa cells, tubuloglomerular feedback causes GFR to ___________.

increase

87

The 10"minus12" tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are the __________.

ureters

88

The mucosa of the urinary bladder includes __________ epithelium.

transitional

89

The smooth muscle layers surrounding the mucosa of the urinary bladder are collectively known as the __________.

detrusor muscle

90

The normal component of urine that is derived from the detoxification of ammonia produced as a result of deamination of proteins is __________.

urea

91

The enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells in response to impulses from renal sympathetic nerves is __________.

renin

92

The substrate for the enzyme secreted by juxtaglomerular cells is __________.

angiotensinogen

93

The blood vessels of surrounding the loop of Henle that help maintain the hypertonic conditions in the peritubular spaces of the renal medulla are called the __________.

vasa recta

94

The percentage of plasma in afferent arterioles that becomes glomerular filtrate is called the __________.

filtration fraction

95

In the formula for calculating net filtration pressure, those forces opposing glomerular filtration are __________ and __________ .

capsular hydrostatic pressure; blood colloid osmotic pressure