PSYCHOLOGY CH. 5 Flashcards


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1

Model others

Observation learning is learning that occurs when we__________--

2

Learning

is relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience

3

Observational

Learning by watching the behavior of others is in social learning theory called ____________ learning

4

Food, water and sexual satisfaction

Which of the following are examples of primary reinforces?

5

Negative reinforcement

When removal of a stimulus in response to a behavior increases the frequency of that behavior, _______ is said to have occurred.

6

Unconditioned response

When a dog salivates upon tasting food, the salivation is called the ________ reponse

7

Increases, decrease

In term of increasing or decreasing behavior in operant conditioning, negative reinforcement ________ a behavior whereas punishment _______ it.

8

Behaviorism

is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of mental activities such as thinking, wishing, and hoping.

9

Money , Praise

Which of the following are secondary reinforcers?

10

classical

The form of associative learning where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn reponse is called _____________ conditioning

11

The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that behavior will be repeated

What is the definition of reinforcement?

12

1. behaviors followed by bad results are less likely to occur
2. behaviors followed by good results are more likely to occur again

According to Thorndike's law of effect,

13

The form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus is associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic, inborn response.

Define classical condition

14

Negative

_______ reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior

15

Positive

________ reinforcement is the presentation of a stimulus after a behavior

16

Ration-interval

Which of the following is NOT a schedule of partial reinforcement?

17

A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a learned response

What is a conditioned stimulus?

18

Reinforcement

is the process in operant conditioning by which a stimulus increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.

19

When a child imitates his mother's actions

Which of the following is an example of observational learning?

20

Conditioned response

By ringing a bell whenever he gave food to his lab dogs, Pavlov eventually got the dogs to salivate to the sound of the bell. In this context the salivation elicited by sound of the bell is called the

21

Operant conditioning

_________ _________ is a form of associative learning in whcih the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurence

22

Schedules

__________ of reinforcement are timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.

23

reduce the frequency of a behavior

Punishment will tend to

24

Classical

_________ conditioning can produce immunosuppression, a decrease in the production of antibodies.

25

A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden understanding of the problem's solution

What is insight learning?

26

Ratio

If one wants a high rate of responding, one should use which type of schedule?

27

fixed interval

The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reponses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passes is called a ________ ________ schedule

28

An extinguished conditioned response reemerges

Which of the following is the definition of spontaneous recovery?

29

UR

What is the abbreviation for 'unconditioned response'?

30

reduce the frequency of a behavior

Both positive and negative punishment

31

Implicit or latent learning

The term used to describe learning that is not reinforced and is not reflective immediately in behavior, the term used is ______ learning

32

Modeling

When a child tells a doll not to eat too much candy after having been told so by its mother, this is an example of

33

voluntary behaviors

Operant conditioning is better than classical conditioning at explaining:

34

True

True or false: Acquisition in classical conditioning is the initial learning of the stimulus-response link.

35

Behavioral

_________ modification is the use of operant conditioning to change human behavior

36

Continuous , patial

In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented eery time; whereas in _________ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented some of the time.

37

CR

What is the abbreviation for 'conditioned response'?

38

Classical

A learned association between a particular taste and nausea is a special kind of ______ conditioning.

39

Involves removing a stimulus

Unlike positive punishment, negative punishment

40

Shaping

When a rat is enters a Skinner box, it has to learn to press a lever to get food. At the very beginning of this process, it is rewarded with food when it is only in the vicinity of the lever, then it is rewarded when it touches the lever, and so on. This technique of rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior is___________

41

Automatically causes a response, each time it is presented

The unconditioned stimulus

42

Expectancy learning

Expectancy ______ is when for example, a patient can see that they are getting a drug for pain (as in a pill versus an injection) because their own past expectations are triggered to expect pain reductio,

43

Extinction

In classical conditioning, the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent is known as ______

44

False

True or false: A variable-interval schedule is a timetable in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis.

45

Spontaneous

The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response is called _______ recovery

46

True

True or false: A fixed-ratio schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behavior

47

learned response

The conditioned response is the ______ response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus

48

Extinction

When a previously conditioned response decreases and eventually disappears, ______ has occurred.

49

Behavior modification

Applied behavior analysis or _______ modification is the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.

50

unconditioned stimulus

A(n)_____ stimulus produces a response without prior learning.

51

Perform a behavior

What behavior do rats engage in while in a "Skinner box"?

52

neutral stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that does not bring about a response of interest is a ______- stimulus

53

Shaping

_____ can be especially helpful for learning tasks that require time and persistence to complete because rewards are given as subjects get closer to approximating the task.

54

Addition of a stimulus to decrease a behavior

Positive punishment is____

55

Sam is reinforced every 2-5 times he puts his toys away

Which of the following is a variable ratio schedule?

56

Generalization

In clasical conditioning, the tendency of a new stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response is known as ______-

57

Negative punishment

the removal of a stimulus to decrease a behavior