Psych 462 Exam 2 Part 2 Flashcards


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Chapters 4 & 5
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1

Chemical messengers that act on neurons in the immediate vicinity of their release are known as

Neurotransmitters

2

Chemical messengers that diffuse from their site of release to affect neurons at some distance away are known as

Neuromodulators

3

This chemical,is released from the adrenal gland and travels through the bloodstream it fits into the receptors on almost every cell in the body

Neurohormone

4

Acetylcholine (ach) is synthesized from

Choline, usually found in dietary fats, and acetyl coenzyme a, a substance formed by the actions of mitochondria within cells

5

The primary neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction is

Acetylcholine

6

Neurons using which of the following neurotransmitters are particularly likely to deteriorate in the case of Alzheimer's disease

Acetylcholine

7

Cholinerigic neurons in the brain are important to which of the following behaviors

Learning and memory

8

Or a nod his friends were experimenting with experimenting with the hallucinegic Amanita mushrooms, and he experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure. Which of the following is the best explanation for rob's symptoms

The muscarine in the mushrooms interacted with cholinergic receptors in Robs central nervous system

9

Behaviors involving movement, reinforcement, and planning often involve brain systems that use the neurotransmitter

Dopamine

10

Parkinson's disease typically results from degeneration of the brain systems using the neurotransmitter

Dopamine

11

Given the typical symptoms of ADHD including impulsivity, difficulty paying attention, and unusually high levels of motor behavior, which of the following neurotransmitters do you think would be involved

Epinephrine

12

The primary source of norepinephrine in the brain is the

Locus coeruleus

13

In PTSD people often feel hyper vigilant or unable to relax even when they're in a safe situation. Which of the following neurotransmitters might be involved in this unusual state

Norepinephrine

14

Which of the following neurotransmitters are released by the autonomic nervous systems

Ach and norepinephrine

15

Tryptophan serves as a precursor in the synthesis of

Serotonin

16

The regulation of sleep, mood and appetite involve brain systems using the neurotransmitter

Serotonin

17

The most frequently used excitatory neurotransmitter in the cns is

Glutamate

18

Jennifer enjoys Asian food, but carefully avoids the food additive msg. If she eats it by mistake she experiences a rapid pulse, chest pain and nausea. Jennifer's symptoms result from interaction between msg and which of the following neurotransmitters

Glutamate

19

Brad very nearly died after consuming alcohol and barbiturates at a party. Which of the following statements is the best explanation for brads close call?

Both alcohol and barbiturates interact with the GABAa receptor, producing a dangerous level of cms inhibition

20

Which of the following neurotransmitters are most directly involved with the perception of pain

Adenosine

21

A neuropeptide involved with the perception of pain is

Substance p

22

Within the brain nitric oxide

Appears to play an important role in regulating sensory input to the cortex

23

Drugs that enhance the activity of a neurotransmitter are known as

Agonists

24

Chef felines stimulant effects occur because it is an _______ neurotransmitter adenosine

Antagonist for the inhibitory

25

Drugs that interfere with the activity of a neurotransmitter are known as

Antagonists

26

Eating carbs before bed may promote sleep, because carbs raise brain levels of tryptophans which

Are precursors for the synthesis of serotonin

27

Jonathan is being treated for high blood pressure and heart disease with the drug reserpine. Which of the following side effects should Jonathan and his physician expect to see

Profound depression

28

Christina was bitten bya black widow spider while retrieving some wood for her fireplace her abdominal muscles began to contract painfully, which was to be expected because black widow spider venom

Promotes greater the normal release of ach at the neuromuscular junction

29

Botulin and it's deactivated version Botox causes muscle paralysis by

Preventing the release of ach

30

If a newly developed drug activated receptors for a neurotransmitter, the drug would be considered a __________ for that neurotransmitter

Agonist

31

Kerry's little brother was recently Ritalin for his ADHD. Having completed her bio psych course, she was able to explain to her parents Ritalin was most similar in its actions at the synapse to

Cocaine and amphetamine

32

Which of the following drugs act as reuptake inhibitors

Cocaine and prozac

33

Sarin gas is a type of organophosphate. It was released in a Tokyo subway by a religious sect, killing 12 people. Organophosphate are dangerous because they

Interfere with acetylcholinesterase allowing acetylcholine to overstimulate muscle fibers

34

Modern antidepressants such as fluoxetine
(Prozac) exert their effects by

Inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin

35

The magnitude of a drugs effect is most directly a result of

The concentration of the drug in the blood supply

36

John participates in a drinking game at a friends weekend party and after a while finds himself vomiting uncontrollably. Which of the following statements is the best description of johns situation

John has ingested a dangerous amount of alcohol and his area postrema has initiated vomiting in order to remove remaining alcohol from his stomach

37

Lisa and Tom both weigh 160 lbs, and both just consumed 2 beers in the last hour. We can conclude

Lisa blood alcohol level will probably be higher than toms because alcohol is diluted by muscle and men usually have more muscle than women

38

With repeated use of a drug more of the drug is necessary to achieve the same effects. This demonstrates the development of

Tolerance

39

Cindy abuses barbiturates and she continually increases her doses. What is the likely outcome?

She is very likely overdose, because some barbiturates show effects of tolerance while others do not

40

Darrell is going through withdrawal from a drug and is showing symptoms of extreme excitation and seizures. The drug he was using is most likely

Alcohol

41

Rita is going through withdrawal froma drug and is showing symptoms of lethargy. The drug she was using is most likely

Amphetamine

42

A brain structure that appears to be involved with addiction is the

Nucleus accumbens

43

Caffeine use is correlated with lower rates of

Parkinson's deisease

44

Amphetamine and cocaine

Inhibit dopamine reuptake

45

Ecstasy is most similar in chemical make up to which of the following drugs

Methamphetamine and mescaline

46

OxyContin closely resembles

Herion

47

The negative impact of THC on memory may be due to effect on

Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex

48

Mescaline from peyote cactus may produce hallucinations by influencing the activity of

Serotonin

49

Which of the following hallucinogens often results in the user becoming physically violent

PCP

50

Memory problems associated with alcohol may result from its activity at ________ receptors

NMDA glutamate

51

Herbal alternative medicines

Do not undergo the same testing and evaluation as prescription medications

52

St. John's wort a non prescription herbal substance frequently used as an antidepressant produces it main effect by

Inhibiting serotonin reuptake

53

Which of the following experiences do not experience a critical window?

Mathematical reasoning

54

1 yr old joeys eyes have been crossing whenever he tries to focus on anything close to him. The doctor has told his parents that he has to have glasses immediately and wear them whenever he is awake. Why would the doctor say that

Joeys eyesight is still developing and if he doesn't wear the glasses during the critical period his vision could be permanently damaged

55

According to research, Romanian orphans showed optimum recovery from early childhood deprivation when they were adopted prior to the age of

Six months

56

Critical periods may end in response to

The end of axon growth in a particular part of the brain

57

Researchers believe at the conclusion of myelin growth spurts in areas associated with language learning probably indicates

The end of a critical period for language learning

58

Most cases of Down syndrome are the result of

Maternal age

59

Having family members with which of the following disorders raises your chances of producing a child with the same disorder

Fragile x and PKU

60

In which of the following conditions can the failure to a follow a carefully prescribed diet result in mental retardation

PKU

61

Fetal alcohol syndromes occurs

Even in cases in which the mother drinks only moderately

62

At the onset of Alzheimer's disease, the first areas to show degeneration

Hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex

63

An abnormal protein found in brains of people with Alzheimer's disease is known as

Amyloid