Ch 6 quiz

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1

A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is __________.
A. osteoporosis
B. osteomalacia
C. osteitis
D. osteopenia
E. osteomyelitis

A. osteoporosis.

2

Which of the following statements concerning the periosteum of a bone is NOT true?
A. The periosteum consists of an outer,dense
connective tissue layer and an inner osteogenic
layer.
B. Blood vessels enter bone through periosteum.
C. All bone surfaces in the body are covered by
the periosteum.
D. The periosteum provides strong attachment and
continuity from tendon to bone.
E. The periosteum is important for bone growth
in width.

C. All bone surfaces in the body are covered by
the periosteum.

3

During fetal development, intramembranous ossification takes place in __________.

A. the center of the epiphysis
B. lamellae
C. the medullary cavity
D. fibrous connective tissue membranes.
E. cartilage

D. fibrous connective tissue membranes.

4

Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone is prescribed for Mary?
A. thyroid hormone
B. growth hormone
C. estrogen
D. parathyroid hormone
E. calcitonin

C. estrogen

5

The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of __________.
A. yellow marrow
B. the ground substance
C. spongy bone
D. red marrow
E. the matrix of bone tissue

A. yellow marrow

Yellow marrow is adipose tissue where energy is stored in the fat cells.

6

The cells that maintain mature compact bone are __________.
A. osteocytes
B. osteoclasts
C. osteoblasts
D. lacunae
E. chondrocytes

A. osteocytes

Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are embedded in the matrix.

7

The lacunae of bone contain __________.
A. blood cells
B. bone marrow
C. chondroblasts
D. osteocytes
E. osteons

D. osteocytes

8

The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to __________.
A. the process of osteopenia
B. the process of healing a fracture
C. the process of calcification
D. intramembranous ossification
E. endochondral ossification

E. endochondral ossification

9

The two types of osseous tissue are __________.
A. bones and cartilage
B. long bone and short bone
C. dense bone and compact bone
D. spongy bone and cartilage
E. compact bone and spongy bone

E. compact bone and spongy bone

10

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,_____
A. interstitial bone growth begins
B. appositional bone growth begins
C. long bones have reached their adult length
D. the bone becomes more brittle
E. puberty begins

C. long bones have reached their adult length

11

Intramembranous ossification __________.

A. begins within a connective tissue membrane
B. is responsible for long bone formation
C. begins with a cartilaginous precursor
D. is the most common way bones are formed

A. begins within a connective tissue membrane

12

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the __________.
A. metaphysis
B. diaphysis
C. epiphysis
D. epiphyseal line

B. diaphysis

13

Growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate is known as __________.

A. appositional growth
B. hypertrophic growth
C. endochondral growth
D. interstitial growth

D. interstitial growth

14

Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal through __________.

A. concentric lamellae
B. canaliculi
C. periosteum
D. interstitial lamellae

B. canaliculi

15

Spongy bone contains all of the following, EXCEPT __________.

A. collagen fibers
B. true osteons
C. hydroxyapatite
D. trabeculae

B. true osteons

16

The bones in the long axis of the body make up the __________.

A. long bones
B. axial skeleton
C. appendicular skeleton
D. trabeculae

B. axial skeleton

17

Which of the following is a canal-like passageway?

A. line
B. tubercle
C. meatus
D. fossa

C. meatus

18

Which of the following characteristics of skeletal cartilage limits its thickness?
A. It's avascular and receives most of its
nourishment from the perichondrium that
surrounds it.
B. It is resilient.
C. It has a girdle of perichondrium that resists
outward expansion when it is compressed.
D. It is primarily composed of water.

A. It's avascular and receives most of its
nourishment from the perichondrium that
surrounds it.

19

The menisci of the knee are made of __________.

A. fibrocartilage
B. hyaline cartilage
C. dense connective tissue similar to ligaments
and tendons
D. elastic connective tissue

A. fibrocartilage

20

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage?

A. Cartilage-forming cells divide and secrete new
matrix on the external surface of the cartilage.
B. Cells in the perichondrium differentiate into
chondroblasts.
C. Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from
within the cartilage.
D. It grows from the outside.

C. Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from
within the cartilage.

21

__________ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.

A. Long
B. Flat
C. Sesamoid
D. Short

C. Sesamoid

22

All of the following are stored in the matrix of bones, EXCEPT __________.

A. insulin-like growth factor
B. transforming growth factor
C. vitamin D
D. calcium

C. vitamin D

23

A narrow, slitlike opening in a bone is referred to as a __________.

A. trochanter
B. fissure
C. crest
D. spine

B. fissure

24

Which of the following structures anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone?

A. yellow bone marrow
B. a nutrient foramen
C. perforating fibers
D. diploë

C. perforating fibers

25

Which of the following sites is the site where bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult?

A. the diploë of the skull bones
B. the diaphysis of long bones
C. the sternum
D. the head of the humerus

C. the sternum

26

Bone-forming cells originate from __________.

A. osteoblasts
B. osteocytes
C. osteoclasts
D. osteoprogenitor cells

D. osteoprogenitor cells

27

The twisting of a long bone is prevented by which of the following?

A. Volkmann's canals
B. Sharpey's fibers
C. lacunae
D. circumferential lamellae

D. circumferential lamellae

28

Hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of __________.

A. calcium and osteoclasts
B. calcium and phosphates
C. calcium and vitamin D
D. calcium and osteocytes

B. calcium and phosphates

29

Before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of __________.

A. fibrous membrane.
B. compact bone
C. spongy bone
D. lamellar bone

A. fibrous membrane.

30

If a breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient, what disease is most likely to develop in the nursing infant?

A. rickets
B. osteoporosis
C. dwarfism
D. Paget's disease

A. rickets

31

Osteomyelitis is a condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function.

True or False

False

32

Collagen in the bone matrix provides flexible strength.

True or False

True

33

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a calcified model.

True or False

False

34

Excess growth hormone prior to puberty would result in gigantism.

True or False

True

35

Mature bone cells are called chondrocytes.

True or False

False

36

Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoblast activity.

True or False

False

37

Scapulae are formed by intramembranous ossification.

True or False

False

38

Secondary ossification centers occur in the center of the diaphysis.

True or False

False

39

The central canal of an osteon contains osteocytes.

True or False

False

40

The hormone calcitonin may function to decrease the calcium ion in the blood.

True or False

True

41

The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates that long bone growth is still in process.

True or False

False

42

The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis.

True or False

True

43

Vitamin D is necessary for the formation of the organic framework of bone.

True or False

False

44

Osseous tissue is avascular.

True or False

False

45

Appositional growth in a skeletal cartilage will increase its overall length.

True or False

False

46

A metacarpal is an example of a long bone.

True or False

True

47

An increase in parathyroid hormone can cause bones to become porous and brittle.

True or False

True

48

Increasing the percentage of collagen in a bone would make it become more rigid.

True or False

False

49

A bone that is imbedded in a ligament or tendon is a short bone.

True or False

True

50

Spongy bone in flat bones is called diploë.

True or False

True