Chapter 1-The Human Body: An Orientation

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The Human Body: An Orientation
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1

What is anatomy

study of the structure of the body

2

what is physiology

study of the function of the body

3

what is microscopic anatomy

structures too small to be seen with the naked eye

4

what is gross anatomy

study of large body surfaces visible to the naked eye

5

what is histology

the study of tissues

6

what is cytology

the study of cells

7

what is surface anatomy

obtaining information about the inside of the body from the outside

8

what is neuroanatomy

study of the nervous system

9

what is developmental anatomy

structural changes that occur in the body throughout the lifespan

10

what is embryology

structural changes that occur before birth

11

list the levels of structural organization

chemical, organelles, cellular, tissues, organ system and organismal

12

List the characteristics of life

breathe, movement, growth, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion

13

What is homeostasis

the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in the presence of a constantly changing external environment

14

Homeostasis is achieved by

positive and negative feedback

15

Name the three feedback mechanisms

receptor, control center and effector

16

What happens during negative feedback

the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces it's intensity

17

what happens during positive feedback

the level of the variable will change in the same direction as an initial change

18

Is this a negative of positive feedback example?
Body produces more insulin in response to a rise is blood sugar

negative feedback

19

Is this a negative of positive feedback example?
a blood vessel is damaged, platelets begin to cling to the injured area and release chemicals to attract more platelets

positive feedback

20

What two body systems control all other body systems

nervous and endocrine

21

describe anatomical position

standing erect, facing observer, arms to the side and close to the body, palms facing forward and feet together

22

superior (cranial)

up

23

inferior (caudal)

down

24

ventral (anterior)

front

25

dorsal (posterior)

back

26

medial

towards the midline

27

lateral

away from the midline

28

intermediate

in between

29

proximal

toward the center of the body

30

distal

away from the center of the body

31

superficial

external (on the surface)

32

deep

internal

33

name the regional term for the following body areas:
frontal, orbital, nasal, oral, mental

cephalic

34

name the regional term for the following body areas:
sternal, axillary, mammary

thoracic

35

what regional term is used for the neck

cervical

36

name the regional term for the following body areas
umbilical

abdominal

37

name the regional term for the following body areas
inguinal (groin)

pelvic

38

name the regional term for the following body areas
genital

pubic

39

name the regional term for the following body areas
acromial, brachial, antecubital, olecranal, antebrachial, carpal

upper limb

40

name the regional term for the following body areas
pollex, metacarpal, palmar, digital

manus

41

name the regional term for the following body areas
coxal, femoral, patellar, popliteal, crural, sural, fibular or peroneal

lower limb

42

name the regional term for the following body areas
tarsal, calcaneal, metatarsal, digital, plantar, hallux

pedal

43

name the regional term for the following body areas:
otic, occipital

cephalic

44

name the regional term for the following body areas
scapular, vertebral, lumbar, sacral, gluteal, perineal

back (dorsal)

45

what plane divides the body into left and right parts

sagittal

46

what plane divides the body into left and right parts exactly on the midline

midsagittal

47

what plane divides the body into left and right parts unequally

parasagittal

48

what plane divides the body into anterior and posterior planes

frontal (coronal plane)

49

what plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts

transverse (cross section)

50

what plane divides the body diagonally

oblique

51

name the two types of body cavities

dorsal and ventral

52

what are the two subdivision of the dorsal cavity

cranial and vertebral

53

what does the cranial cavity contain

skull and brain

54

what does the vertebral cavity contain

spinal cord

55

what are the two subdivisions of the ventral cavity

thoracic and abdominopelvic

56

name the subdivision of the thoracic cavity

left pleural, right pleural and pericardial

57

name the subdivisions of the abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal and pelvic

58

what are the ventral body cavities are lined by

serous membranes

59

serous membranes can be found where

around the lungs (pleural), around the heart (pericardium) and abdominal(peritoneum)

60

name the two layers of the serous membranes

visceral (inner) and parietal (outer)

61

What region is the centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus

umbilical region

62

what region is located superior to the umbilical region

epigastric region

63

what region is located inferior to the umbilical region

hypogastric region

64

what region is located lateral to the hypogastric region

right and left iliac or inguinal region

65

what region lies lateral to the umbilical region

right and left lumbar region

66

what region lies lateral to the epigastric region and deep to the ribs

right and left hypochondriac regions