Lecture Exam Chapters - (1,3,4,9,10,11,18)

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Microbiology
Chapters 1, 3, 4, 9-11, 18
SPSCC Microbiology 260 Exam 1 - Fall '13
updated 7 years ago by jmart556
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1

Bacteria
Archaea
Fungi

Prokaryotic

2

Protozoa
Algae
Multicellular animal parasites

Eukaryotic

3

Viruses
Prions

Acellular

4

_________________ is a Symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits, the other is unaffected.

Commensalism

5

______________ is a Symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit.

Mutualism

6

______________ is a Symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits, the other is harmed.

Parasitism

7

______________ protect us from overgrowth of harmful bacteria.
Help produce Vit. K and some B vitamins

Normal microbiota (used to be called flora)

8

Bacteria that are photosynthetic are _______________.

Producers

9

Bacteria/fungus that recycle essential nutrients are _______________

Decomposers

10

Bioremediation is

Ex. Conveting pollutants to harmless molecules
(Microbs eating oil spills, or cleaning sewage)

11

ROBERT HOOKE

1665 - See first Cells
Beginning of cell theory (all living things are composed of cells)

12

Anton van Leeuwewnhoek

"Father of Microscopy"
"animalcules" 1673-1723

13

Francesco Redi

1699
Disproved spontaneous generation with experiment of meat in a jars some covered with Gauze

14

CELL THEORY

1.) All living things are composed of cells
2.) Cells can only come from preexisting cells

15

John Needham

1745
Microbes appeared after pouring boiled nutrient broth into flasks that were then covered.

16

Lazzaro Spallanzani

1765
Microbes did not grow when the second flasks were heated after the broth was poured in.

17

Rudolf Virchow

1858
Claimed living cells can only come from preexisting cells Second tenet of the cell theory

18

Louis Pasteur

1861-disproved spontaneous generation *Biogenesis – life comes from life
Using flask w/ S Shaped neck.

Discovered HOW vaccinations worked after Jenner's 1796 cowpox discovery

19

Ignaz Semmelweiss

1840’s
Realized Germs were transmitted on our hands b/c post-partum mothers did not die with midwives, but did often die at Hospitals.

Saw his co-work get sick/die after cutting himself while working on corpse

20

John Lister

1860s (Listerine named after him)
Put together Semmelweiss’ handwashing observations and Pasteur’s work
Began disinfecting surgical wounds & surgical instruments Proved microorganisms caused surgical wound infections (use Carboxlic Acid to disinfect tools)

21

Robert Koch

1846
Discovered:
the bacterium that caused Anthrax in cattle
Bacterium that caused TB
Rules for controlling cholera outbreaks

22

Koch's Postulates

1. The specific organism should be shown to be present in all cases of animals suffering from a specific disease, but should not be found in healthy animals

2. The specific microorganism should be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in pure culture on artificial laboratory media

3. This freshly isolated microorganism, when inoculated into a healthy non-immune laboratory animal, should cause the same disease seen in the original animal

4. The microorganism should be re-isolated in pure culture from the experimental infection

23

John Snow

Founder of Epidemiology
1854 Broad Street Pump (Cholera outbreak)

24

Edward Jenner

1796 - (Vaccination) Discovered exposure to cowpox prevented smallpox

25

Alexander Fleming

1928 - Penicillium fungus killed S. aureus
1940 - Penicillin mass produced

26

_________________is the ability of the lenses to distinguish two points.

Resolution

27

______________________wavelengths of light provide greater resolution

Shorter

28

___________________ is a measure of the light-bending ability of a medium

refractive index

29

Microscope Requiring - Ultrathin sections of specimens, therefore specimen is killed and fixed to side, however allows you to see what is inside specimen.
magnifies 10,000-100,000x can see viruses

Transmission Electron Microscopy

30

Microscope Allowing whole specimen, allows visualizing surface of specimen

Resolution 10nm - 1000-10,000x

Scanning Electron Microscopy

31

Coloring a specimen with a dye that emphasizes certain structures

Staining

32

Specimen stained with only one dye is a _____________ stain

Simple

33

___________________ Colored ion in stain

Chromophore

34

In ______________ Dyes the chromophore is positively charged

Basic dyes (pH)

35

In _____________ Dyes the chromophore is negatively charged.

Acidic dyes (pH)

36

________________ Intensifies the stain

Mordant

37

Bacteria have a slightly ___________________ charge

Negative

38

_________________ Stains used to distinguish between bacteria

Differential
(ex. Gram stain/Acid-fast stain)

39

In Gram Staining ____________ is the Primary Stain

Crystal Violet

40

In Gram Staining ____________ is the Mordant

Iodine

41

In Gram Staining ______________ is the Decolorizing Agent.

Alcohol/Acetone

42

In Gram Staining the counterstain is __________________.

Safranin

43

The color of Crystal Violet is _____________.

Purple

44

The color of Safranin is ________________.

Red/Pink

45

Bacterium with a waxy cell wall are best stained with __________.

Acid-fast stain

46

Mycobacterium and Nocardia are best stained with ________________ because of their waxy cell wall.

Acid-Fast
Mycobacterium causes TB

47

Primary Stain of Acid-Fast is __________________.

Carbolfuchsin

48

Decolorizing Agent of Acid-Fast staining is _______________.

Acid/Alcohol

49

Couterstain in Acid-Fast is _________________.

Methylene Blue

50

What color is Carbolfuchsin?

Red

51

Name some examples of why you need to use "Special Stains"

1.)Capsule Stain (negative staining)
2.)Endospore Stain
3.)Flagella stain

52

Small, unicellular cells with DNA NOT enclosed in a nucleus are _____________ cells.

Prokaryotic

53

Typically larger cells, with membrane bound organelles, sometimes multicellular are ___________________ cells.

Eukaryotic

54

Name the shape of prokaryotic cells that appear round or spherical.

Cocci

55

Name the shape of prokaryotic cells that appear rod-shaped.

Bacilli

56

Name the shape of prokaryotic cells that appear spiral shaped.

Spiral

57

Name some rare-shapes for prokaryotic cells

Star
Rectangular

58

Name and Describe the (5) possible arrangements of cocci bacteria

1.) a single cocci
2.) a diplococci (2 bound together in a single plane)
3.) Streptococci (chain)
4.) tetrad (bound in 2 planes x,y)
5.) Sarcinae (orderly bound in 3 planes - x,y.z)
6.) Staphylococci - (NONorderly, in 3 planes, CLUMPS)

59

What is the shape of Bacillus?

Rod Shapped

60

Name and describe the (4) possible arrangements of bacilli

1.) Single Bacillus (rod)
2.) Diplobacilli (2 hooked together end to end)
3.) Streptobacilli (multiple cells, hooked end to end in a chain)
4.) Coccobacillus (Squished/Pill shaped, stacked next to each other)

61

Describe a palisade Arrangement.

Joined at the ends, but at angles to each other, usually only a few hooked together. Example Corynebacteria (Causes diphtheria)

62

The bacteria shape with a slight curve is _________________

Vibrio

Ex. V. cholerae (Causes cholera)

63

The bacteria with a wave shape is __________________

Spirillum

64

The bacteria with a corkscrew shape is ______________

Spirochete

Ex. Treponema pallidum (causes syphilis)

65
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What Colony Morphology - Shape is this

Circular

66
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What Colony Morphology - Shape is this

Rhizoid

67
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What Colony Morphology - Shape is this

Irregular

68
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What Colony Morphology - Shape is this

Filamentous

69
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What Colony Morphology - Shape is this

Spindle

70
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Entire

71
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Undulate

72
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Lobate

73
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Curled

74
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Rhizoid

75
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What is the Colony Morphology of this MARGIN?

Filamentous

76
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Describe the elevation Morphology of these colonies.

1. Flat
2. Raised
3. Convex
4. Pulvinate
5. Umbonate

77

A sticky gelatinous polymer, made up of polysaccharides and/or, usually made inside the cell and secreted to outside the cell wall is called

Glycocalyx (Sugar coat)

78

Name 2 types of Glycocalyx

1.) Slime Layer
2.) Capsule

79

A Glycocalyx that is unorganized, loosely attached to cell wall is a ________________ layer.

Slime

80

A Glycocalyx organized, firmly attached to cell wall, contributes to pathogenicity and prevents phagocytosis is a __________________.

Capsule

81

What is a biofilm?

Glycolcalyx and other material make up biofilm.
Helps cells attach to surfaces and each other.

82

Prokaryotic flagellum are made up of chains of _________.

flagellin

83

Prokaryotic flagellum are attached at their base by a structure called the _____________.

Protein hook

84

Prokaryotic flagellum are anchored to the wall and membrane by their _______________.

Basal body
(like a drywall anchor)

85

Describe a prokaryotic cell with Peritrichous flagellum.

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Flagellum all-over

86

Describe a prokaryotic cell with Monotrichous/polar flagellum.

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single flagella (at one end if polar)

87

Describe a prokaryotic cell with Lophotrichous/Polar flagellum.

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A tuft of flagella (at one end if polar)

88

Describe a prokaryotic cell with Amphitrichous/polar flagellum.

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flagella on both ends

89

The flagella in a gram positive cell attaches in a cell wall with _______ Rings.
The flagella in a gram negative cell attaches in a cell wall with ______ Rings.

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Gram Positive has - 1 Ring
Gram Negative has - 2 Rings

90

Name and describe the flagella like structure in spirochetes.

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Axial Filament
Corkscrew-like movement provide taxis.

91

Flagellum movement in Eukaryotic cells is caused by ______________.

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Central microtubules:Doublet Microtubles in a 9+2 arrangement.

92

Are Fimbriae found in some Gram POSITIVE or Gram NEGATIVE bacteria?

Some Gram Negative

93

What are Fibriae

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Made of protein Pilin, used for adherence of other cells/surfaces (biofilms/epithelial cells)

94

What are Pili

- Structure similiar to Fimbriae, but used for motility (grappling hook/gliding).
Also used for DNA transfer b/w bacteria conjugation.

95

____________________ bacteria have no cell wall, plasma membranes have sterols.

Mycoplasma

96

___________________ have no cell wall or walls without peptidoglycan appear gram-negative, but not same as gram-negative bacteria

Archaea

97

___________________ & __________________ species have mycolic acid in cell wall prevents uptake of Gram stain dyes identified with acid-fast stain

Mycobacterium & Nocardia

98

What type of Cell Wall do animal cells have?

No Cell Wall

99

What type of Cell Wall do Plants have?

Cellulose

100

What type of Cell Wall do Fungi have?

Chitin

101

What type of Cell Wall do Algae have?

cellulose

102

What type of Cell Wall do Protozoa have?

Pellicle (protein)

103

________________ proteins are on inner and outer surfaces include Enzymes, receptors, support

Peripheral

104

___________ proteins Transmembrane include Channels, carriers, pumps

Integral

105

Active Transport requires

ATP

106

Simple and Facilitated diffusion are ?
A.) Passive
B.) Active

A.) Passive

107

True or False:
Eukaryotic cells DO NOT use group translocation.

True

108

Eukaryotic cell membrane carbohydrates function as___________________?

Identity Markers

109

Cell membranes containing carbohydrates and sterols are found in Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic

110

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell???
uses endocytosis (active process) - pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated

Eukaryotic

111

Gram POSITIVE or NEGATIVE? cell walls contain2 types of teichoic acid and many peptidoglycans.

Gram Positive

112

True or False
Gram Positive Cell Walls have an outer membrane

FALSE

113

True or False
Gram Negative Cell Walls have an outer membrane

TRUE

114

True or False
Animal cells contain Peptidoglycan.

FALSE!!!!!

115

A type of transport unique to prokaryotes in which glucose passes through a channel is phosphorylated and then too large to leave the cell is ____________________.

Group Translocation (of Glucose)

116

Crenation is ___________________.

Shrinking/wrinkling up of cell (such as in hypertonic solutions)

117

Cytolysis is _________________________.

bursting of cell wall (such as in hypotonic solutions)

118

Plasmolysis is _________________.

Shrinking away/wrinkling of a plasma membrane from a cell membrane (such as when plant cell placed in hypertonic solution)

119

Region in prokaryotes where DNA is located

Nucleoid

120

True or False
Bacteria DNA is bound to histone proteins.

FALSE

Most bacterial DNA is located on one single large circular chromosome

121

What is a plasmid?

In Prokaryotes - Small circular, contain DNA, generally genes coded here not critical for survival (Plasmids may be exchanged b/w organisms - thought to help replicate, segregate chromosome)

122

Site of protein synthesis (translation) in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

RIBOSOMES

123

_________________ cells have free Ribosomes and Bound Ribosomes (ER).

Eukaryotic

124

________________ cells have only free ribosomes (no ER)

Prokaryotic

125

Contins 80S ribosomes, composed of 60S and 40S sub-units

Eukaryotes

tip (remember E-even #, E-eukaryotes)

126

Contains 70S ribosomes, composed of 50S and 30S sub-units

Prokaryotes

127

__________________ inclusions are reserves of inorganic phosphate for making ATP. Made by cells in phosphate-rich environment

VOLUTIN (metachromatic granules)

Diagnostic for C. diphtheria

128

______________ inclusisons are glycogen and starch storage, common in bacterial but found in eukaryotic cells too

Polysaccharide granules

129

____________ Inclusions are stored poly-hydroxybutyric acid found in bacteria for an energy reserve

LIPID

130

___________ Inclusions take CO2 from air to make organic compounds

Carboxysomes

131

____________ gas surrounded by protein to provide buoyance in aquatic prokaryotes

Gas Vacuoles

132

_______________ inclusions found in bacteria that use sulfur for energy

Sulfur granules

133

_______________ inclusion that contain Iron Oxide, allows geo-magnetic orientation, may detoxify H2O2

Magnetosomes

134

A thick Wall Cell produced under unfavorable Conditions, resistant to antibiotics, temperature, dehydration, starvation.

Endospore

135

Endospore returning to "life"

vegitation

136

Process of forming an endospore

Sporulation

137

Site of metabolism in prokaryotes is _____________________.

Plasma membrane.

138

Pneumonic:
Do Keep Plates Clean Or Family Gets Sick

King Philip Came Over For Good Soup

Life
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

139

The science of classifying organisms, provides universal names, and reference for identifying organisms

TAXONOMY

140

Classified by cell types (differences in rRNA, membrane lipid structure, tRNA, sensitivity to Antibiotics

DOMAINS

(Proposed by Carl Woese in 1978)

141

ENDOSYMBIOSIS

...

142

Carolus Linnaeus

Defined Hierarchical classification (TAXONOMY) 1700's

143

Eukaryotic species (definition)

a group of closely related organism that breed among themselves.

144

Prokaryotic Species (definition)

a population of cells with similar characteristics

145

Culture

Cells grown in laboratory

146

Clone

Population of cells derived from a single cell

147

Strain

genetically different cells w/in a clone

148

Selective Media

Suppresses unwanted microbs; encourages desired microbs

149

Differential Media

Differentiation of colonies of desired microbs from others

150

Phage

a virus that infects bacteria

151

Western Blot is used for Protein or DNA?

PROTEIN ONLY