Chapter 25 & 26 - The Urinary System and Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balances
The hormone that is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid ?
Respiratory acidosis can occur when:
A PERSON'S BREATHING IS SHALLOW DUE TO OBSTRUCTION
Describe the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids ?
K+ MAINLY IN THE CELLS, NA+ IN THE BODY FLUIDS
A falling blood Ph and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates:
The movement of fluids between cellular compartments:
IS REGULATED BY OSMOTIC AND HYDROSTATIC FORCES
Chemical buffering systems of the body may include:
The hormone important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys ?
The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids, plasma is considered to be which ?
A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis ?
One of the major physiological factors that trigger thirst is what ?
RISE IN PLASMA OSMOLARITY
What is the most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls ?
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF CAPILLARY BLOOD
What does not depend on the presence of electrolytes ?
AMOUNT OF BODY FAT
Urine passes through what ?
PELVIS OF THE KIDNEY TO URETER TO BLADDER TO URETHRA
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin:
BY A DECREASE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE
The descending limb of the loop of Henle:
CONTAINS FLUID THAT BECOMES MORE CONCENTRATED AS IT MOVES DOWN INTO THE MEDULLA
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because:
IT STABILIZES THE POSITION OF THE KIDNEYS BY HOLDING THEM IN THEIR NORMAL POSITION
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is:
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for:
REGULATING THE RATE OF FILTRATE FORMATION AND CONTROLLING SYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is:
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules:
IS HORMONALLY CONTROLLED IN DISTAL TUBULE SEGMENTS
The mascula densa cells respond to:
CHANGE IN SOLUTE CONTENT OF THE FILTRATE
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of:
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it:
INHIBITS THE RELEASE OF ADH
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal ?
NET FILTRATION WOULD DECREASE
BY ACTIVE MECHANISMS USUALLY INVOLVES MOVEMENT AGAINST AN ELECTRICAL AND/OR CHEMICAL GRADIENT
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid:
WILL APPEAR IN THE URINE
If one says that the renal clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean ?
NORMALLY ALL THE GLUCOSE IS REABSORBED
Which statement is correct ?
REABSORPTION OF WATER IS HORMONALLY CONTROLLED
A patient is infused with inulin at a rate to maintain a blood plasma concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Their urine volume produced is 1.0 mL per minute, and the urine concentration of inulin is 12 mg/mL. What is their renal clearance for inulin ? What does this tell you ?
THEIR RENAL CLEARANCE FOR INULIN IS 120 ML/MIN (12*1.0/0.1)
THIS TELLS ME THEY HAVE A NORMAL RATE OF GFR AND FILTRATION IS NORMAL.
The atomic weight of calcium is 40. How many mEq/L would be in a solution that contained 200 mg/L ?
10 mEq/L WOULD BE IN A SOLUTION THAT CONTAINED 200 MG/L
What does the following symbol stand for HCO3 ?
IT STANDS FOR HYDROGEN CARBONATE
What does the following symbol stand for HPO42- ?
IT STANDS FOR HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE