Nutrition Chapter 1

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Definitions from chapter 1 of Sizer and Whitney's "Nutrition Concepts and Controversies" 12th Edition
updated 7 years ago by iloveram
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College: First year
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nutrition
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1

Food

Medically any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carrier of nourishment; socially a more limited number of such substances defined as acceptable by each culture.

2

Nutrition

The study of the nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food.

3

Diet

The foods (including beverages) a person usually eats and drinks

4

Nutrients

components of food that are indispensable to the body's functioning. They provide energy, serve as building material, help maintain or repair body parts, and support growth. The nutrients include water, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins and minerals.

5

What are the six types of nutrients the body requires?

water, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, minerals, fats

6

Which 4 of the six nutrients are organic, meaning that they contain the element carbon derived from living things?

Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Vitamins

7

Which 3 nutrients are energy-yielding?

Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

8

Alcohol yields energy but is not a nutrient. It is a...

Toxin

9

Do vitamins and minerals provide energy to the body?

No

10

Vitamins and minerals act as ? in the body?
a) what does this mean
b) give 6 examples

Regulators, meaning they assist in all body processes: digesting food; moving muscles, disposing of wastes; growing new tissues, healing wounds; obtaining energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein; and participating in every other process necessary to maintain life.

11

What is the unit of weight that scientists use to measure food quantity?

grams

12

What are essential nutrients?

Essential nutrients are nutrients that if you don't ingest, you will develop deficiencies. The body cannot make these nutrients for itself.

13

Essential nutrients are found in which types of nutrients?

They are found in all six classes of nutrients.

14

Energy in food is measured in?

kilocalories, units of heat. This word uses the common word calories to mean the same thing.

15

What are elemental diets? Who takes them?

liquid diets with a precise chemical composition that are lifesaving for people in the hospital who cannot eat ordinary food. Administered to the severely ill

16

Do formula diets enable people to thrive over long periods?

No. They are only essential to help sick people to survive. They do not support optimal growth and health.

17

Foods contain phytochemicals. What are they?

Compounds that confer color, taste, and other characteristics to foods. Some may be bioactive food components that interact with metabolic processes in the body and may affect disease.
(PHYTO means "plant") compounds in plant-derived foods.

18

What are whole foods?

Foods that have been arounds for a long time, such as vegetables, fruits, meats, milk and grains. These foods have been called basic, unprocessed, natural or farm foods.

19

On a given day, almost how much our our population doesn't consume enough vegetables and how much fail to consume enough fruits?

Vegetables: 3/4ths
Fruits: 2/3rds

20

What are functional foods?

Whole or modified foods that contain bioactive food components believed to provide health benefits, such as reduced disease risks beyond the benefits that their nutrients confer.

21

What are enriched and fortified foods?

These are foods to which nutrients have been added.

22

What are staple foods?

Foods used frequently or daily, for example, rice or potatoes.

23

What are medical foods?

Foods specially manufactured for use by people with medical disorders and prescribed by a physician.

24

Define nutraceutical:

a term that has no legal or scientific meaning but is sometimes used to refer to foods, nutrients or dietary supplements believed to have medicinal effects. Often used to sell unnecessary or unproven supplements.

25

What are natural foods?

a term that has no legal definition but is often used to imply wholesomeness.

26

What are organic foods?

Understood to mean foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.

27

What are processed foods?

Foods subjected to any process, such as milling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking or others. Depending on the starting material and the process, a processed food may or may not be nutritious.

28

Define Adequacy

the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight.

29

Define Balance

the dietary characteristic of providing foods of a number of types in proportion to each other, such that foods rich in some nutrients do not crowd out the diet foods that are rich in other nutrients.

30

Balance is also called...

Proportionality

31

What is calorie control?

Control of energy intake; a feature of a sound diet plan.

32

Define Variety

the dietary characteristic of providing a wide selection of foods.

33

Define moderation:

the dietary characteristic of providing constituents within set limits; not to excess.

34

A nutritious diet has five characteristics. What are they?

Adequacy, balance, moderation, variety, calorie control

35

A major guideline for healthy people is to keep fat intake below ? percent of total calories?

35%

36

What is a controlled clinical trial?

a research study design that often reveals the effects of a treatment in human beings. Health outcomes and observed in group of people who receive the treatment and are then compared with outcomes in a control group of similar people who received a placebo. Ideally neither subjects nor researchers know who receives the treatment and who gets the placebo.

37

What is a double bind study?

a study in which neither the subjects nor the researchers know who receives the treatment and who gets a placebo.

38

What is a blind experiment?

An experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group.

39

What is a correlation?

the simultaneous change of two factors such as the increase of weight with increasing height (a direct or positive correlation) or the decrease of cancer incidence with increasing fiber intake (an inverse or negative correlation.) A correlation between two factors suggests that one may cause the other but does not rule out the possibility that both may be caused by chance or by a third factor.

40

What is an intervention study?

Studies of populations in which observation is accompanied by experimental manipulation of some population members--for example a study in which half of the subjects (the experimental subjects) follow diet advice to reduce fat intakes while the other half (the control subjects) do not, and both groups' heart health is monitored.

41

What are laboratory studies?

Studies that are performed under tightly controlled conditions and are designed to pinpoint causes and effects. Such studies often use animals as subjects.

42

What is NHANES? What two things does it do?

The national Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide project that gathers information from a nationally representative sample of people using diet histories, physical examinations and measurements and laboratory tests. NHANES asks people what they have eaten and records measures of their health status.

43

What are the six stages of behavior change? Explain each.

1. Precontemplation- not considering a change, have no intention of changing, see no problems with current behavior
2. Contemplation- Admit that change may be needed; weigh pros and cons of changing and not changing.
3. Preparation- Preparing to change a specific behavior, taking initial steps and setting some goals.
4. Action- Committing time and energy to making a change; following a plan set for a specific behavior change.
5. Maintenance- Striving to integrate the new behavior into daily life and striving to make it permanent
6. Adoption/Moving On- The former behavior is gone and the new behavior is routine.

44

What are the three obstacles to changing behavior? Which is the most easily corrected? Which is hardest to change?

1. Competence- most easily corrected, not knowing how to eat healthy, missing knowledge
2. Confidence- locus of control- believing that the individual has control over life's events.
3. Motivation- Toughest