Name the 6 functions of the respiratory system
2) regulation of blood pH
3) production of chemical mediators (ACE)
What are the 3 types of respiration?
1) external (gas exchange between lungs and blood)
2) internal (gas exchange between blood and tissues)
3) cellular (chemical processes in the cell)
What parts form the upper respiratory tract?
nose, pharynx, external nares, nasal cavity, pharyngeal tonsil, nasopharynx, palatine tonsil, oropharynx, lingual tonsil, epiglottis
What parts form the lower respiratory tract?
larynx (thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage), trachea, primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli
Where are chemoreceptors of the respiratory system located?
In the nose & inner nasal cavity
List the pathway of oxygen through the respiratory system
1) External nares 2) nasal cavity 3) oropharynx 4) laryngopharynx 5) larynx 6) trachea 7) primary bronchus 8) secondary bronchus 9) tertiary bronchus 10) bronchioles 11) terminal bronchiole 12) respiratory bronchiole 13) alveoli 14) erythrocyte
What type of cells are in the inner lining of the trachea?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (with goblet cells)
What divides the nasal cavity sagitally?
the nasal septum
What bones form the roof of the nasal cavity?
Ethmoid & sphenoid
What prevents liquid from going into the larynx?
What type of cells make up the three regions of the pharynx?
1) nasopharynx- pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
2) oropharynx- stratified squamous epithelium
3) laryngopharynx- stratified squamous epithelium
True or false: the openings of the auditory tube (eustachian tube) are in the nasopharynx?
True or false: the oropharynx is shared with the digestive system
What are the three types of UNPAIRED cartilages in the larynx?
thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis (attached to thyroid)
What type of cartilage is the epiglottis made of?
What are the three types of PAIRED cartilage in the larynx?
Arytenoids (attached to cricoid), corniculate (attached to arytenoids), cuneiform (contained in mucous membrane)
True or false: the false vocal cords are involved in sound production
False (the true vocal cords are involved in sound production)
What is opening of the vocal cords called?
How many c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings are in the trachea?
The most inferior tracheal cartilage forms a ridge which separates the openings into the main bronchi. This is called the:
The two primary bronchi meet to form the:
What does a tertiary bronchus divide in to?
What structure in the lungs is the site of oxygen exchange with the blood stream?
What are the three types of cells in respiratory membrane?
1) Type I pneumocytes (thin squamous epithelial)
2) Type II pneumocytes (round to cube-shaped secretory cells)
3) Dust cells (phagocytic- engulfs debris & bacteria)
What cells in the lungs are not mature in pre-term babies?
Type II pneumocytes- they are not mature enough to produce surfactant in pre-term babies
What are the parts of the lungs?
Base, apex, hilus, lobes
True or false: each lung has 3 lobes.
False- the right lung has 3 lobes, the left lung has 2 lobes
Name the fissures in the right lung
oblique fissure, horizontal fissure
Name the fissures in the left lung
oblique fissure (there is only one fissure since there are only two lobes in the left lung)
True false: the cardiac notch is located on the right lung
False: the cardiac notch is on the LEFT lung (this is thought to be why the left lung only has 2 lobes)
Name the muscles involved in INSPIRATION
Scalenes, pectoralis minor, external intercostals, diaphragm
Name the muscles involved in EXPIRATION
Internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
Which muscle in the PRIMARY muscle of inspiration?
What is the region between the two pleural cavities?
True or false: the mediastinum contains the contents of the thoracic except for the lungs
Which pleura is adherent to the lungs: visceral or parietal?