Microbiology- Chapter 8- Microbial Genetics

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DNA RNA Genetics
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1

Genetics is the study of ____________?

hereditary- it includes the study of what genes are, how they carry information, how they are replicated, and passed to subsequent generations of cells or passed between organisms and how the expression of their information within n organism determines the particular characteristics of that organism.

2

The genetic information in a cell is called a __________?

genome

3

A bacterial cell's genomes includes its __________ and ___________________.

chromosomes (circular) and plasmids

4

Chromosomes are _________________?

structures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information; the chromosomes contain the genes.

5

Genes are __________________?

segments ofDNA (except in viruses in which they are made of RNA) that code for functional products.

6

DNA is a macromolecule composed of repeating units called ____________?

Nucleotides, deoxyribose and a phosphate group

7

Genes code for a specific _______________?

characteristic or trait

8

Single bacterial chromosomes include ____________________.

chromosome and associated proteins
contains all or most of genes

9

The DNA inside a cell exists as __________________________.

in long strands of nucleotides twisted together in pairs to form a double helix

10

Each double helix has a __________-________________.

sugar-phosphate backbone- an alternating sugar and phosphate group and a nitrogenous base is attached to each sugar

11

The two strands are held together by _____________ between their nitrogenous bases.

hydrogen bonds

12

Base pairs always occur in a specific way ____________ and ________________.

Adenine always pairs with thymine and cytosine always pairs with guanine

13

The two strands of DNA are ________________?

complementary

14

The bacterial chromosome is located in the ______________ region

nucleoid

15

DNA is anchored to ______________.

plasma membrane