1) Innate immunity
A) is activated immediately upon infection.
B) depends on a newly infected animal's previous exposure to the same pathogen.
C) is based on recognition of antigens that are specific to different pathogens.
D) is found only in vertebrate animals.
E) utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B cells.
2) Acidity in human urine is an example of
A) cell-mediated immune responses.
B) antibody activation.
C) acquired immunity.
D) adaptive immunity.
E) innate immunity.
4) Engulfing-phagocytic cells of innate immunity include all of the following except
C) dendritic cells.
D) natural killer cells.
7) A systemic inflammatory response that is often life-threatening is
A) mild fever.
B) aches and dull pain.
C) septic shock.
D) high blood pressure.
E) increased white blood cell count.
17) An invertebrate, such as an insect, has innate immunity activity in its intestine that likely includes
E) dendritic cells.
21) Septic shock, a systemic response including high fever and low blood pressure, is a response to
A) certain bacterial infections.
B) specific forms of viruses.
C) the presence of natural killer cells.
D) a fever of >103°F in adults.
E) increased production of neutrophils.
47) The cells involved in innate immunity, whose absence increases the chances of developing malignant tumors, are
A) cytotoxic T cells.
B) natural killer cells.
C) helper T cells.
E) B cells.
79) A patient complaining of watery, itchy eyes and sneezing after being given a flower bouquet as a birthday gift should first be treated with
A) a vaccine.
C) sterile pollen.
E) monoclonal antibodies.
2) Which of the following levels of ecological organization is arranged in the correct sequence from most to least inclusive?
A) community, ecosystem, individual, population
B) ecosystem, community, population, individual
C) population, ecosystem, individual, community
D) individual, population, community, ecosystem
E) individual, community, population, ecosystem
5) Which of the following choices includes all of the others in creating global terrestrial climates?
A) differential heating of Earth's surface
B) ocean currents
C) global wind patterns
D) evaporation of water from ocean surfaces
E) Earth's rotation on its axis
6) Why is the climate drier on the leeward side of mountain ranges that are subjected to prevailing winds?
A) Deserts usually are found on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
B) The sun illuminates the leeward side of mountain ranges at a more direct angle, converting to heat energy, which evaporates most of the water present.
C) Pushed by the prevailing winds on the windward side, air is forced to rise, cool, condense, and drop its precipitation, leaving only dry air to descend the leeward side.
D) Air masses pushed by the prevailing winds are stopped by mountain ranges and the moisture is used up in the stagnant air masses on the leeward side.
E) More organisms live on the sheltered, leeward side of mountain ranges where their utilization of water lowers the amount available when compared to the windward side.
15) The main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is that
A) there is more ice at the poles.
B) sunlight strikes the poles at a lower angle.
C) the poles are farther from the sun.
D) the polar atmosphere is thinner and contains fewer greenhouse gases.
E) the poles are permanently tilted away from the sun.
18) As climate changes because of global warming, species' ranges in the northern hemisphere may move northward, using effective reproductive adaptations to disperse their seeds. The trees that are most likely to avoid extinction in such an environment are those that
A) have seeds that are easily dispersed by wind or animals.
B) have thin seed coats.
C) produce well-provisioned seeds.
D) have seeds that become viable only after a forest fire.
E) disperse many seeds in close proximity to the parent tree.
21) If global warming continues at its present rate, which biomes will likely take the place of the coniferous forest (taiga)?
A) tundra and polar ice
B) temperate broadleaf forest and grassland
C) desert and chaparral
D) tropical forest and savanna
E) chaparral and temperate broadleaf forest