Microbiology Chapter 1
Microbes-also called micro organisms
Are minute living things that individually are too small to be seen with unaided eye
What groups are included in microbes.
Bacteria, fungi ( yeasts and molds), Protozoa , and microscopic algae and viruses.
The majority of of micro organisms actually help maintain the balance of living organisms and chemicals in our environment. True or False.
What forms the basis of food chain oceans, lakes and rivers?
marine and freshwater microorganisms
What do soil microbes do?
break down wastes and incorporate nitrogen gas from the air into organic compounds, thereby recycling chemical elements between the soil, water, life and air.
Why do humans and animals depend on microbes in their intestines?
For digestion and the synthesis of of some vitamins that their bodies require including some vitamin b for metabolism and vitamin k for blood clotting.
In 1914, Chaim Weizmann discovered? And what is the importance of this?
The process by which microbes produce acetone and butanol. The importance of this was WW1 was breaking out and his discovery produced cordite a smokeless form of gun powder used in munitions. It played a significant role in the outcome of the war.
What can microbial enzymes do?
They can be manipulated to produce substances that they don't normally synthesize. Such as cellulose, digestive aids, and other therapeutic substances such as insulin.
What is pathogenic?
Why do hospital workers need to know about microbes more so than other people?
Because they are working with the sick and injured and microbes that are usually harmless can pose a threat to sick/injured patients.
Andrea has what appears to be a small spider bite but it turns out to be a staph infection. The doctor prescribes B-lactam antibiotic why doesn't kill the staph?
The Staph Aureus is resistant to the B-lactam antibiotic
What is staph the common name for?
Staphyloccoccus aureus bacteria
True or false. Staph is carried on the skin by about 30% of the population?
What is MRSA staph?
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
why wouldn't the B-lactam antibiotic kill the MRSA?
MRSA produces B-lactamase an an enzyme that destroys B-latam antibiotics.
How does antibiotic resistance occur?
Mutations develop randomly and some are nothing and some are fatal and some beneficial. Once these mutations develop the offspring of the parent cells also carry the same mutation. Because they have an advantage in the presence of the antibiotic bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics soon out number those that are susceptible to antibiotic therapy. The widespread use of antibiotics selectively allows the resistant bacteria to grow whereas susceptible bacteria are killed. Eventually almost all the entire population is is resistant to antibiotic
How does MRSA enter the body?
Through skin abrasions from the environmental surfaces or other people.
Who developed the nomenaclature system?
Carolus Linnaeus (1735)
How many names is is each living organism given?
The two name consist of a ___________and a __________ both if which are underlined or italicized.
A genus and a specific epithet
Genus (plural- genera)
Is the first name and is always capitialized
specific eepithet (species name)
second follows the genus and is not capitalized
scientific names can describe:
an organism, honor a researcher, or identify the habitat of a species (e.g. staphylococcus aureus Staphylo- describes the cluster arrangement of the cells ; coccus indicates that they are shaped like spheres. The specific epithet aureus id lati for golden the color of many colonies of the bacterium.
Who is the bacterium Escherichia coli get its nae?
Theodor Escherich -genus
coli- reminds us E. coli live in the colon or large intestine
(singular: bacterium: are simply single-celled organisms.
Is bacteria's genetic material enclosed in a specil nuclear membrane?
Bacteria cells are called
prokaryotes- Greek meaning prenucleus
Bacterial cells appear in one of several shapes: name them.
coccus-spherical or ovoid
spiral- corkscrew or curved
some are star shaped or square
Individual bateria may form, ________, __________, ______________or othe groupings; such formations are usually charactersitic of a particular genus or species of bacteria.
Bacteria are enclosed in cell walls that are primarily composed of a ________ and a _________ complex called _______________.
How does bacteria reproduce?
dividing into two equal cells
When bacteria divide into 2 equal parts this is called?
Where does bacteria get its nutrition?
Use organic chemicals which can derived fro either dad or lving organisms. Some bacteria can manufacture their own food by photosynthesis and some can derive nutrition from inorganic substances.
How can many bacteria swim?
Using moving appendages caleed flagella
Archaea is the same and differs from bacteria by:
Consist of prokaryotic cells but if they have walls the walls peptidoglycan.
Name the 3 groups that archaea are divided into:
methanogens: produce methane as a waste product from respiration
extreme halophiles (halo= salt philic=loving) live in extremely salty environemnts such as the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea
extreme thermophiles- (therm=heat) live in a hot sulfurous water - hot springs
True or false; archaea or not known to cause disease in humans.
Honors microbiologist Daniel Salmon (source of genus name)
found in the intestines
Appearance of cell in chains (strepto)
fungus (myces) that uses sugar (saccharo)
Fungi (singular- fungus)
Are eukaryotes; organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus containing the cell's genetic material (DNA, surrounded by a special envelope called the nuclear membrane
Organisms in the Kingdom Fungi may be _________or ______________.
unicellular or multicellular
True or false. Fungi can not carry out photosynthesis
True fungi have cell walls composed primarily of ___________.
The unicellular form of fungi is _____________.
The most typical from of fungi are ________.
olds form visible masses called_____________.
Fungi can reproduce_________ or __________________.
sexually or asexually
Fungi gets nourishment by absorbing solutions of _____________________.
organic material from their environment
Protozoa (singular- protozoan)
unicellular eukaryotic microbes
Protozoa move by _________ or __________ and _______________.
Amebae move by using extenions of their cytoplasm called ____________.
Protozoa live either as ________ or as ____________.
parasites - organisms that derive nutrients from living hosts- or environment
Euglena are _______________.
Photosynthetic - they use light as a source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon to produce sugars.
Protozoa can reproduce________ or ____________.
Sexually or asexually
Algae (singular alga)
are photosynthetic eukaryotes
The cell walls of many algae are composed of ____________.
Algae produce _____________ and ______________.
oxygen and carbohydrates that are utilized by other organisms
They are so small can only be seen with a electron microscope and they are acellular (not cellular)
Structure of a virus
a virus particle contains a core made of only one type of nucleic acid either RNA or DNA.
Viruses can only reproduce by_________________.
Only by using the cellular machinery of other organisms.
Viruses are considered to be living only when they multiply within the host cells that they infect.
on the other hand they are not considered living because the are inert outside living hosts
Animal parasites are
eukaryotes - flat worms and round worms are parasitic worms
1978, Carl Woese devised a system of classification based on the cellular organization of an organism. What are those classifications?
In 1665, Robert Hooke discovered
individual cells and marked the beginning of cell theory- that all living things are comprised of cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed
live microorganisms through the magnify lenses of 400 microscopes in rain water and feces and he drew pictures of them which were later identified as bacteris and protozoa
What is spontaneous generation?
that forms of life can spontaneously arise from nonliving matter
living cells can arise rom preexisting living cells
Louis Pasteur demonstrated that:
micro-organisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions but the air itself can not contaminate sterile solutions.
Louis Pasteur showed that microorganisms can be destroyed by?
heat- aseptic techniques to keep things sterile
When was the Golden age of microbiology?
Yeasts converts sugars to alcohol is called?
In the presence of air bacteria change the alcohol into vinegar
What is the process called that kills off most of the bacteria that causes spoilage?
What is the germ theory of disease?
That microorganisms might cause disease
In the 1860's Joseph Lister a surgeon applied germ theory to ______________.
Medical procedures- he knew that fever and other ailments were being passed from person to person when medical instruments we not cleaned and hands not washed. He realized that phenol (carbolic acid) killed bacteria so he began treating surgical wounds with phenol.
What did Lister's findings prove?
Proved that microorganisms cause surgical wound infections
Who and when was the first person to prove that bacteria actually cause disease?
Robert Koch in 1876
What did Koch discover?
rod shaped bacteria now known as Bacillus anthrax in the blood of cattle that died of anthrax.
What is Koch's postulates?
a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease.
the process of conferring immunity by administering a vaccine; also known as an immunzation
Vaccine was discovered by ______________.
Edward Jenner - small pox using cow pox a much milder version to see if having a milder version could protect you from getting small pix.
Protection from disease provided by vaccination (or by recovery from the disease itself)
Why did Pasteur say vaccines worked?
Bacteria lost its virulence or became avirulent when grown in the laboratory. This would induce immunity against subsequent virulent counterparts.
What did Pasteur use the term vaccine for?
Cultures of virulent microorganisms used for preventative inoculation.
An example of using a substance to destroy a pathogenic microorganisms without harming the infected animal or human is ____________.
Treatment of disease using a chemical substance
( The term also commonly refers to chemical treatment of noninfectious diseases like cancer)
Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms are called _______________.
Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the lab are called_________.
The success of chemotherapy is based on ___________________________.
The fact that some chemicals are more poisonous to microorganisms than to the hosts infected with the microbes.
The first synthetic drug salvarsan (arsenic derivative) was discovered by Paul Ehrlich and was used against _________________________?
Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered_________________?
What was the mold that Fleming was looking at that inhibited the growth of the bacterium?
Penicillium notatum and he named the mold's active inhibitor penicillin
True or false the toxicity of microorganisms to humans is a leading cause as to why medicines for treating viral diseases.
True or false. Viral growth depends on the life processes of normal cells?
What causes resistance to antibiotics?
Genetic changes in microbes that allows them to tolerate a small amount of antibiotic that would typically inhibit them.
Bacteriology is the ___________________________.
study of bacteria
Mycology is _______________________________________.
the study of fungi
Parasitology is _________________________.
The study of protozoa and parasitic worms
Genomics is _______________________.
the study of all of an organism's genes
Genomics has allowed scientists to classify bacteria and fungi according to their___________________________.
Genetic relationships with other bacteria, fungi. and protozoa.
Immunology is ________________________.
The study of immunity and have produced vaccines against numerous diseases such as MMR (German Measles) mumps and chicken pox
The study of viruses
Recombinant DNA technology brought about two related fields know as ______________and __________________.
microbial genetics and molecular biology
Microbial genetics is ___________________________.
The mechanism by which microorganisms inherit traits
Molecular biology studies______________________.
how genetic information is carrie in molecules of DNA and how DNA directs the synthesis of proteins/
Normal microbiota or flora
Do humans no harm and actually benefit u by protecting us against disease and some produce helpful substances such as vitamin K and B
What is a biofilm?
a complex aggregation of microbes (e.g. slime on a rock, biofilm on teeth)
Infectious disease is a ___________________________________.
A disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host
Name some emerging infectious diseases:
In the 1980s MRSA emerged and became endemic. True or false?