An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
A)How does the uneven heating of Earth's surface cause the movement of air and water masses?
B)How do genes specify protein construction?
C)How are different species of fish related (in an evolutionary sense) to each other?
D)How does caffeine affect the transmission of nerve impulses in humans?
E)How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?
How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of _____
Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because _____.
A)the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
B)water has a high heat of vaporization
C)the hydrogen bonding in water causes it to be cohesive
D)water is always cooler than the nearby landmasses
E)All of the listed responses are correct.
the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S?
A)Earth is tilted on its axis.
B)The greatest amount of solar energy per unit area is absorbed by Earth between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
C)Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
D)Warm air rises between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude and spreads toward the poles and the equator.
E)Earth is a rotating sphere.
Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude
When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the California Coast Range, they are referring to _____.
A)the shadow cast by the mist and clouds that hover above the crest of the range
B)the forested condition on the eastern flank of the range compared with the western flank
C)the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
D)the dark-colored chaparral vegetation that grows on the eastern flank
E)None of the listed responses is correct
the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
Wet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused by _____.
A)changes in day length
C)proximity to bodies of water
D)upwelling of cold ocean water
E)the tilt of the Earth
the tilt of the Earth
The warming of the Earth is a(n) _____ effect. People are worried that it will have a(n) _____ effect, perhaps causing the extinction of a number of species.
A)ecological ... evolutionary
B)abiotic ... dispersal
C)evolutionary ... biotic
D)ecological ... dispersal
E)biotic ... abiotic
ecological ... evolutionary
Assume that the average temperature in a particular city in the year 1900 was 10.3°C. Based on known warming trends in global climate, what do you expect the average temperature to be in that city in the year 2000?
Which of the following statements about biomes is correct?
A)Each biome type occurs on every continent.
B)The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.
C)Most biomes are characterized by unique groups of particular species of plants and animals.
D)Most biomes are unaffected by human activity.
E)Each continent is home to a biome not found elsewhere on Earth.
The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.
A climograph shows the mean temperature and precipitation values that support different biomes. What information is missing that would help predict what biome should be found in a particular range?
A)latitude and longitude
C)the pattern of climatic variation, including seasonal differences
E)dominant plant species
the pattern of climatic variation, including seasonal differences
Different species that inhabit the same type of biome, but occur in widely separated geographic regions, often appear similar due to _____.
A)their close evolutionary relationships
C)the occurrence of the same sets of species within a biome, wherever it is found
D)recent common ancestry
What helps produce the patchiness found in most biomes?
Permafrost is characteristic of the _____.
Which biome is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
A)temperate broadleaf forest
Which of the following choices correctly pairs a terrestrial biome with some of its characteristics?
A)temperate broadleaf forest ... cold winters, wet and dry seasons
B)grassland ... moderate winter temperatures, dry summers
C)taiga ... very cold winters, short growing season
D)savanna ... long, cold winters, abundant precipitation throughout the year
E)tundra ... very cold winters, low summer productivity
taiga ... very cold winters, short growing season
Which of the following biomes is dominated by gymnosperm or conifer trees (pines, firs, spruces)?
C)tropical rain forest
Of these biomes, vertical stratification (layers of plants) is most pronounced in the _____.
D)tropical rain forest
tropical rain forest
What could a climograph be used for?
A)to compare the temperature and altitude of different biomes
B)to compare the latitude and precipitation of different biomes
C)to compare the temperature and precipitation of different biomes
D)to compare geographic range and diversity of organisms in different biomes
E)to compare average wind speeds and precipitation of different biomes
to compare the temperature and precipitation of different biomes
Which statement is true about the tundra?
A)Tundra only exists in the Arctic.
B)Permafrost prevents much water from infiltrating the soil.
C)Migratory birds leave the tundra during the summer to find warmer places to nest.
D)Due to rich mineral content, agriculturists have recently focused their attention on the tundra.
E)None of the listed responses is correct.
Permafrost prevents much water from infiltrating the soil.
Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia?
A)Grassland is often consumed by fire.
B)The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
C)Large grazers, such as bison and wild horses, have depleted grassland.
D)Woody shrubs and trees have taken over in areas that receive more precipitation.
E)Grassland has been found to be a good source of minerals and oil.
The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Which of the following pairs of biomes is characterized by relatively simple food webs (low biological diversity)?
A)tundra and grassland
B)tundra and desert
C)desert and grassland
D)desert and broadleaf forest
E)taiga and savanna
tundra and desert
In which of the following biomes would you expect decomposers to work most rapidly and efficiently?
E)tropical rain forest
tropical rain forest
Communities that exist in the aphotic zone ultimately depend on food manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or _____.
A)algae and cyanobacteria that also live in the aphotic zone
B)algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone
E)minerals found on the ocean bottom
algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone
After nutrient enrichment from sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why?
A)Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. This reduces the penetration of light into the lake, the water temperature falls, and eventually the fish population dies.
B)Nutrient input to a lake poisons the fish.
C)Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
D)Nutrient input to a lake poisons the organisms that fish eat.
E)Nutrient input causes the death of algae and cyanobacteria and, thus, the ultimate sources of organic compounds in a lake ecosystem. Eventually, this reduces the availability of food for fish within the lake, leading to their death.
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
Plankton consists of _____.
A)algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans only
B)photosynthetic organisms that drift near the surfaces of aquatic biomes
C)algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that belong to the benthic communities of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
D)algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
E)algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that occupy the aphotic zones of oceans, lakes, and ponds
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
Which of the following is characteristic of oligotrophic lakes?
A)seasonal O2 depletion
C)frequent algal blooms
D)few littoral plants and a low density of phytoplankton
E)animals that are tolerant of low-oxygen conditions
few littoral plants and a low density of phytoplankton
Rooted plants are found only in the _____ zone of a lake.
E)None of the listed responses is correct.
Fringe wetlands develop _____.
A)along shallow and periodically flooded banks of rivers and streams
B)along the coasts of lakes where water flows back and forth because of falling and rising lake levels
C)along the coasts of seas where water flows back and forth because of tidal action
D)both the second and third listed responses
E)All of the listed responses are correct.
both the second and third listed responses
Below the photic zone of the ocean, _____.
A)phytoplankton outnumber zooplankton
B)plants are rooted in the sandy bottom
C)food chains are detritus-based
D)primary producers capture the sun's energy, which is then passed up the energy pyramid
E)all the organisms are either floating or free-swimming
food chains are detritus-based
What is the importance of turnover in temperate lakes?
A)It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
B)It helps to set up a thermocline in the lake.
C)It brings benthic organisms to the surface, where they have access to more light and oxygen.
D)It occurs constantly during the summer, giving the lakes a murky appearance.
E)It changes the relative positions of the photic and aphotic zones.
It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
In a rather infamous case of species transplantation, starlings were introduced into North America from Europe in 1890 by an eccentric Shakespeare fan. Though the actual range of starlings was originally in the eastern hemisphere, it is clear that North America was part of its _____ range.
An immature frog (a tadpole) lives in a pond or lake. However, the adult frog possesses special adaptations that permit it to survive in a terrestrial environment. These special adaptations _____.
A)help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out
B)maximize body temperature
C)permit the adult frog to maintain its internal water balance given the solute concentration of its hypotonic surroundings
D)maximize the rate of water loss from its body
E)maximize the interception of solar energy
help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out
Cattle egrets, originally only found in Africa and southwestern Europe, can now be found in North America, due to which of the following?