33 notecards = 9 pages (4 cards per page)
An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of _____
Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because _____.
the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S?
Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude
When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the California Coast Range, they are referring to _____.
the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
Wet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused by _____.
the tilt of the Earth
The warming of the Earth is a(n) _____ effect. People are worried that it will have a(n) _____ effect, perhaps causing the extinction of a number of species.
ecological ... evolutionary
Assume that the average temperature in a particular city in the year 1900 was 10.3°C. Based on known warming trends in global climate, what do you expect the average temperature to be in that city in the year 2000?
Which of the following statements about biomes is correct?
The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.
A climograph shows the mean temperature and precipitation values that support different biomes. What information is missing that would help predict what biome should be found in a particular range?
the pattern of climatic variation, including seasonal differences
Different species that inhabit the same type of biome, but occur in widely separated geographic regions, often appear similar due to _____.
What helps produce the patchiness found in most biomes?
Permafrost is characteristic of the _____.
Which biome is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
Which of the following choices correctly pairs a terrestrial biome with some of its characteristics?
taiga ... very cold winters, short growing season
Which of the following biomes is dominated by gymnosperm or conifer trees (pines, firs, spruces)?
Of these biomes, vertical stratification (layers of plants) is most pronounced in the _____.
tropical rain forest
What could a climograph be used for?
to compare the temperature and precipitation of different biomes
Which statement is true about the tundra?
Permafrost prevents much water from infiltrating the soil.
Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia?
The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Which of the following pairs of biomes is characterized by relatively simple food webs (low biological diversity)?
tundra and desert
In which of the following biomes would you expect decomposers to work most rapidly and efficiently?
tropical rain forest
Communities that exist in the aphotic zone ultimately depend on food manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or _____.
algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone
After nutrient enrichment from sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why?
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
Plankton consists of _____.
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
Which of the following is characteristic of oligotrophic lakes?
few littoral plants and a low density of phytoplankton
Rooted plants are found only in the _____ zone of a lake.
Fringe wetlands develop _____.
both the second and third listed responses
Below the photic zone of the ocean, _____.
food chains are detritus-based
What is the importance of turnover in temperate lakes?
It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
In a rather infamous case of species transplantation, starlings were introduced into North America from Europe in 1890 by an eccentric Shakespeare fan. Though the actual range of starlings was originally in the eastern hemisphere, it is clear that North America was part of its _____ range.
An immature frog (a tadpole) lives in a pond or lake. However, the adult frog possesses special adaptations that permit it to survive in a terrestrial environment. These special adaptations _____.
help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out
Cattle egrets, originally only found in Africa and southwestern Europe, can now be found in North America, due to which of the following?