Final Exam Review BMED 1110 Flashcards


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1

Which function of the skeletal system would be especially important if you were in a car accident?

protection of internal organs

2

Bone tissue can be described as ________.

dense, hard connective tissue

3

Without red marrow, bones would not be able to ________.

make blood cells

4

Yellow marrow has been identified as ________.

an area of fat storage

5

Which of the following can be found in areas of movement?

cartilage

6

The skeletal system is made of ________.

bones and cartilage

7

Most of the bones of the arms and hands are long bones; however, the bones in the wrist are categorized as ________.

short bones

8

Sesamoid bones are found embedded in ________.

tendons

9

Bones that surround the spinal cord are classified as ________ bones.

irregular

10

Which category of bone is among the most numerous in the skeleton?

long bone

11

Long bones enable body movement by acting as a ________.

lever

12

Which of the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis?

hematopoiesis

13

The diaphysis contains ________.

compact bone

14

The fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of the bone is the ________.

periosteum

15

Which of the following are incapable of undergoing mitosis

osteoblasts and osteocytes

16

Which cells do not originate from osteogenic cells?

osteoclasts

17

Which of the following are found in compact bone and cancellous bone?

lamellae

18

Which of the following are only found in cancellous bone?

trabeculae

19

The area of a bone where the nutrient foramen passes forms what kind of bone marking?

a hole

20

Why is cartilage slow to heal?

because it does not have a blood supply

21

Why are osteocytes spread out in bone tissue?

They are surrounded by osteoid.

22

In endochondral ossification, what happens to the chondrocytes?

They die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity.

23

Which of the following bones is (are) formed by intramembranous ossification?

the flat bones of the cranium

24

Bones grow in length due to activity in the ________.

epiphyseal plate

25

Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation ________.

beneath the periosteum

26

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of zones in the epiphyseal plate?

calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved

27

A fracture can be both ________.

open and transverse

28

How can a fractured diaphysis release fat globules into the bloodstream?

The yellow marrow in the diaphysis is exposed and damaged.

29

In a compound fracture, ________.

broken bone pierces the skin

30

The internal and external calli are replaced by ________.

trabecular bone

31

The first type of bone to form during fracture repair is ________ bone.

spongy

32

Calcium cannot be absorbed from the small intestine if ________ is lacking.

vitamin D

33

Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt?

estrogen and testosterone

34

All of the following play a role in calcium homeostasis except

thyroxine

35

Which of the following is most likely to be released when blood calcium levels are elevated?

calcitonin

36

Striations, cylindrical cells, and multiple nuclei are observed in ________.

Skeletal muscle only

37

The cells of muscles, myocytes, develop from ________.

Myoblasts

38

Skeletal muscle cells require a great amount of energy. Which organelles do you expect to find in abundance in skeletal muscle cell?

mitochondria

39

Which of the following is not important in preventing backflow of blood?

endocardium

40

Which valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle?

mitral

41

Which of the following lists the valves in the order through which the blood flows from the vena cava through the heart?

tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid, aortic, semilunar

42

Which chamber initially receives blood from the systemic circuit?

right atrium

43

Which portion of the ECG corresponds to repolarization of the atria?

none of the above: atrial repolarization is masked by ventricular depolarization

44

Ventricular relaxation immediately follows ________.

ventricular repolarization

45

Most blood enters the ventricle during ________.

atrial diastole

46

The first heart sound represents which portion of the cardiac cycle?

closing of the atrioventricular valves

47

The cardiovascular centers are located in which area of the brain?

medulla oblongata

48

Which of the following statements about blood is true?

Blood is slightly more viscous than water

49

Which of the following statements about albumin is true?

it is the most abundant plasma protein

50

Which of the following statements about erythropoietin is true?

It facilitates the proliferation and differentiation of the erythrocyte lineage.

51

Which of the following statements about mature, circulating erythrocytes is true?

the have no nucleus

52

A molecule of hemoglobin ________.

consists of four globin proteins, each bound to a molecule of heme

53

Which of the following describes a neutrophil?

abundant, granular, especially effective against bacteria

54

A patient has been experiencing severe, persistent allergy symptoms that are reduced when she takes an antihistamine. Before the treatment, this patient was likely to have had increased activity of which leukocyte?

basophils

55

T and B lymphocytes ________.

are involved with specific immune function

56

The first step in hemostasis is ________.

vascular spasm

57

Prothrombin is converted to thrombin during the ________.

common pathway

58

What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

increase surface area

59

Which of the following are structural features of the trachea?

C-shaped cartilage

60

Which of the following structures is not part of the bronchial tree?

terminal bronchioles

61

The pleura that surrounds the lungs consists of two layers, the ________.

visceral and parietal pleurae.

62

Which of the following processes does atmospheric pressure play a role in?

pulmonary ventilation

63

A decrease in volume leads to a(n) ________ pressure.

increase in

64

The pressure difference between the intra-alveolar and intrapleural pressures is called ________.

transpulmonary pressure

65

Contraction of the external intercostal muscles causes which of the following to occur?

The ribs and sternum move upward.

66

Which of the following prevents the alveoli from collapsing?

residual volume

67

Gas moves from an area of ________ partial pressure to an area of ________ partial pressure.

high; low

68

When ventilation is not sufficient, which of the following occurs?

The capillary constricts.

69

Gas exchange that occurs at the level of the tissues is called ________.

internal respiration

70

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 45 mm Hg in the blood and 40 mm Hg in the alveoli. What happens to the carbon dioxide?

It diffuses into the alveoli.

71

A low partial pressure of oxygen promotes hemoglobin binding to carbon dioxide. This is an example of the ________.

Haldane effect

72

Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin depends on:

ph, temperature, and presence of other oxygen molecules on hemoglobin

73

Which of the following forms of carbon dioxide transport would NOT be found in plasma?

carbaminohemoglobin

74

Hyperventilation leads to abnormally:

low levels of carbon dioxide

75

The papillary layer of the dermis is most closely associated with which layer of the epidermis?

stratum basale

76

Langerhans cells are commonly found in the ________.

stratum spinosum

77

The papillary and reticular layers of the dermis are composed mainly of ________.

  1. connective tissue

78

Collagen lends ________ to the skin.

structure

79

Which of the following is not a function of the hypodermis?

source of blood vessels in the epidermis

80

In response to stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system, the arrector pili ________.

are responsible for goose bumps

81

The hair matrix contains ________.

a layer of basal cells

82

Eccrine sweat glands ________.

are present in the skin throughout the body and produce watery sweat

83

Sebaceous glands ________.

are associated with hair follicles

84

Similar to the hair, nails grow continuously throughout our lives. Which of the following is furthest from the nail growth center?

hyponychium

85

In humans, exposure of the skin to sunlight is required for ________.

vitamin D synthesis

86

One of the functions of the integumentary system is protection. Which of the following does not directly contribute to that function?

folic acid synthesis

87

An individual using a sharp knife notices a small amount of blood where he just cut himself. Which of the following layers of skin did he have to cut into in order to bleed?

papillary dermis

88

As you are walking down the beach, you see a dead, dry, shriveled-up fish. Which layer of your epidermis keeps you from drying out?

stratum corneum

89

If you cut yourself and bacteria enter the wound, which of the following cells would help get rid of the bacteria?

Langerhans cells

90

In general, skin cancers ________.

can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun

91

Bedsores ________.

are preventable by eliminating pressure points

92

An individual has spent too much time sun bathing. Not only is his skin painful to touch, but small blisters have appeared in the affected area. This indicates that he has damaged which layers of his skin?

epidermis only

93

After a skin injury, the body initiates a wound-healing response. The first step of this response is the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding. Which of the following would be the next response?

increased production of connective tissue

94

Squamous cell carcinomas are the second most common of the skin cancers and are capable of metastasizing if not treated. This cancer affects which cells?

keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum